The Mystery of Jack the Ripper

The mystery of Jack the Ripper started at the end of August 1888, when a dead woman’s mutilated body was found on a London street. From August 7 to September 10 in 1888, a serial killer terrorized the Whitechapel district when he murdered at least five women—all prostitutes—in or near London’s East End.

Whitechapel in the East End was a poor neighbourhood that seems out of place in Victorian London. However, the series of killings that began in August 1888 stood out from other violent crimes of the time. The killer was dubbed ‘Jack the Ripper’.

Who Was Jack the Ripper?

The psychological and social infrastructures of the nineteenth century produced the first modern serial killer. In 1888, however, the term “serial killer” had not even been coined yet. These murders were collectively known as the “Whitechapel Murders.”

Jack the Ripper horrifically and grotesquely mutilated his victims’ bodies, some of whom he removed the uteruses of after the fatal attacks. Other killings around the same place and same time did not feature the Ripper’s MO.

For over a century, the identity of the Ripper has remained a mystery. The killer must have looked nondescript and been part of the social fabric of the community setting. So few people knew him, and his permanent institutionalization occurred after the Ripper murders.

Even more than a century later, many people know his nickname and the mystery surrounding his murders. Moreover, the brutal murder inspired countless novels, films, and theories over the past 130 years.


The murder file that records the Ripper’s killings lists eleven murders. However, it is not possible to say for sure how many victims he had. There may have been as few as four victims or as many as eight victims of the Ripper.

  1. Mary Ann Nichols

Five victims have historically been “generally accepted” as victims of Jack the Ripper. The first murder, of Mary Ann Nicholls, took place on August 31. Mary Ann Nichols was a native of London who had spent a good deal of the 1880s homeless.

  1. Annie Chapman

The body of Annie Chapman, Jack the Ripper’s second victim, was found in the backyard of 29 Hanbury Street. A prostitute living in London’s East End, she was murdered on September 8, 1888. Annie Chapman spent most of her life between Knightsbridge, Windsor, Belgravia and Piccadilly. She was under-nourished and suffering from a chronic disease of the lungs (tuberculosis) and brain tissue.

  1. Elisabeth Gustafsdotter

The Ripper’s third victim was born Elisabeth Gustafsdotter on November 27, 1843. Elizabeth Stride was found dead from a cut throat on September 30 1888. It is highly probable that the killer was interrupted in his murder of Elizabeth Stride. Elizabeth, or “Long Liz” Stride, had spent the last afternoon of her life cleaning rooms. Unfortunately, in those days, she didn’t have access to the best water filter system or the best RO system.

  1. Catherine Eddowes

Because he was disturbed, killing Elizabeth Stride, Jack the Ripper went looking for his second victim of the night. On the afternoon of September 30 1888, the brutally mutilated supposed body of Kate Eddowes was discovered in Mitre Square. Catherine Eddowes was found lying on her back in a pool of blood.

When she died, Miss Eddowes was ailing from Bright’s Disease, a form of Uremia. Old friends described her as an “intelligent, scholarly woman, but of fiery temperament.”

  1. Mary Kelly

Jack The Ripper’s last victim was as mysterious as the notorious serial killer himself. Aged 25, Mary Kelly was way younger than Jack the Ripper’s other victims. But the extent to which Mary Jane’s body was mutilated inside and out was deeply distressing. Mary Jane Kelly was a familiar face around Whitechapel.

Bottom Line

For more than 130 years, the true identity of Jack the Ripper has been hotly debated. He was never caught, and nobody was ever punished for the women’s deaths. The number of Jack the Ripper suspects now runs to well over a hundred.

During the course of their investigations, however, police narrowed down the suspects to several men. Many of the police officers who worked on the case claimed that they knew the identity of Jack the Ripper. However, each of them went on to name a different suspect.

The lineup of possible suspects has included the father of Winston Churchill and Prince Albert Victor. It is likely that the true identity of Jack the Ripper will never be known.

The Fight against Homicide: 10 Ways to Safeguard Your Home & Self from Murders

Crime reports are ever on the rise with rape, homicide and robbery being the most common crimes.

The U.S., according to the Bureau of Justice Statistics, has a homicide crime rate of 7.9% in every population of 100,000.

One of the worst crimes is homicide. Many people have been murdered both at home and even away from home. A home invasion occurs when offenders enter your house illegally with weapons they use to rob and injure their victims.

Therefore, it’s important to safeguard yourself and family from such intrusions and related murders. Here’re ten ways you can safeguard your home and self from murders:

  • Invest in an alarm system
  • Install windows with sensors
  • Install a smart home system
  • Put up security signs and stickers around your home
  • Install security cameras
  • Make it a habit to lock your windows and doors
  • Tint your windows using a window film
  • Use motion lights in your compound
  • Change your locks often
  • Arm yourself with licensed weapons

Top 10 Tips to Improving Your Home Security against Homicides

1. Invest in an alarm system

Alarm systems are an effective way of putting off any intruders that may want to break into your house. Whenever offenders and crime doers are aware that your home is fitted with an alarm system, they shy off and would not want to be noticed.

Crime committers don’t always want to be noticed. When your alarm goes off as they approach, they’re likely to leave faster, leaving your home secure.

However, some countries don’t allow their citizens to install alarm systems unless they get a permit. Check out your country’s laws and apply for a license.

2. Install windows with sensors

When you add sensors to your windows and doors, you get notified whenever someone tries to open or close them. If you want to secure yourself and home, protect your home to prevent any potential entrances and break-ins.

3. Install a smart home system

To automatically protect your home from intruders, invest in a smart system in your home.

You won’t be able to watch around your home all the time, but with the smart system, you can be notified when someone intrudes into your home.

Some appliances you can install into a smart home for protection include:

  • Smart lighting
  • Smart cameras
  • Smart speakers
  • Smart smoke and breakage detectors

Designed for easy installation, you can also easily add heaters to your smart system. Some good options include the Takagi tankless water heaters.

The appliances are automated.


You can customize them to detect an intrusion and raise the alarm if your home is under attack.

4. Use security signs and stickers around your home

Security signs scare away crime doers.

Offenders often love easy targets. If they find a security sign in your place, they’re likely to shy off and look elsewhere for easy targets.

Don’t use fake signs; professional killers know how to differentiate genuine signs from fakes.

5. Install security cameras

Cameras capture every moment as it happens. Therefore, installing some around your home is a sure way to capture crime doers on the act. The security devices can also cause intruders to shy off your premises.

Cameras can even be used in a court of law to sue offenders. If you can’t afford proper security cameras, modify your old phones and turn them into the security gadgets.

6. Make it a habit to lock your windows and doors

Intruders have several ways of accessing a person’s home. They can easily access your home if they find your doors and windows unlocked. Even so, some people still leave their doors open.

This can be dangerous, especially if a killer is aiming at attacking you. For sliding glass doors, use secure glass doors to make them difficult to cut.

7. Tint your windows using a window film

Transparent windows are awesome because you can see right through them. You’re able to view your compound from inside your home. But, the danger comes in if an intruder can see you from outside.

Add a film to your window so that whoever is outside can’t see anything happening in the house. This way, they won’t get enough information to plan for an attack.

8. Use motion lights in your compound

Light up your compound at night using motion lights. Illuminate all your entrances so you can see anyone who enters your home at night. This way, crime doers will shy away because they usually prefer to attack at night in darkness.

You can automate your lights so that when the sense motion is triggered, the bulbs light up.

9. Change your locks often

If someone wants to harm you, they’re likely to follow and monitor your steps every time. They could get their hands on your keys, hence the need to change your locks after some time.

This ensures that even if intruders get access to your key, they won’t be able to open your new locks.

10. Arm yourself with licensed weapons

Security starts with you as an individual.

Keep some safety weapons with you in the house for security reasons. In case of an attack, you can scare away a criminal, and even defend yourself against being harmed.

We hope that you found these tips handy!

7 Proven Ways to Prevent Murders

Safety is an essential factor in the modern society.

On the night of the Republican Convention that was focused on making America safe again, no exact answer explained how policymakers intended to secure America.

Many countries face challenges on how to efficiently prevent crimes and murders. The solutions that governments often come up with are never implemented fully. This has been attributed to corruption and the lack of enough resources in some countries.

More reliable evidence shows that high levels of gun ownership cause countries to experience high levels of violence and murders.

Another factor is alcohol consumption. According to the Alcohol Rehab Guide, 40% of the crimes are due to alcohol consumption.

Several other factors cause crimes. Here’re proven ways to fight and prevent murders and crimes in America:

7 Preventing Measures against Gruesome Murders

1) Implement strict policies on alcohol

There is a link between alcohol and violence. A study done in 2010 found that alcohol stores are strongly linked to gun assaults. Being in possession of a gun while drunk is, therefore, not allowed.

Policies can be implemented to limit issues related to alcohol in America and other countries across the world. Some of these policies include:

  • High taxes on alcohol
  • Minimizing the number of alcohol outlets
  • Denying alcohol users who commit offenses after drinking the right to drink.

2) Deploy focused deterrence policing

Proper understanding of community policing and executing it is essential to curbing murders and other crimes. The right community policy is based on the “focused deterrence policing” strategy, which is impactful.

It focuses on a community’s specific problems such as gun violence and rampant murders. It then follows the trail of the individuals and groups involved in such acts and focuses on them.

The community is strongly responsible for conveying strict and transparent standards against violence.

3) Fight identity theft

Identity theft is another factor that can, in one way or the other, lead to other crimes and, even worse, murder. It ranges from financial, criminal, medical, synthetic, driver’s license, and insurance identity thefts.

Criminals can steal your identity and use it to commit crimes, including murder. They also leave the trails of other crimes.

Smart criminals use identity theft to commit criminals so that they can hide from being identified and charged. The following are some ways you can help reduce identity theft:

  • Destroy pieces of evidence showing your personal information such as your account statements and education certificates.
  • Don’t leave trails like your debit and credit card receipts behind.
  • Live a private life and avoid giving your personal information to anybody, especially on social media.
  • Get used to creating strong passwords for your accounts.
  • Secure your data online as criminals use various tactics to get hold of your identity.
  • Sign up for identity theft prevention services that offer identity theft monitoring and status account checking. For instance, LifeLock solutions can protect you from being a victim of identity theft.

4) Raise the allowed school drop-out age

Raise the age or grade limit at which a person is allowed to drop out of school. Students should be kept for long in school; the further they continue their studies, the lesser their likelihood of committing a crime.

When students complete their studies, they’re likely to land good, well-paying jobs. This immensely reduces their tendency to take part in criminal practices for money.

5) Treat violence and murders just like public health concerns

Governments and citizens need to use various methods, including campaigns and technology, to reach every individual and warn them of the effects of crime.

Every individual needs to feel important and appreciated in society to reduce the number of people who feel neglected.

Otherwise, they can easily develop bizarre behaviors inclined towards committing crimes and murders.

6) Learn from past experiences & focus on gun control

Past human rights violation practices and neglect of particular groups of people in society led to crimes and murders. Learn from previous experiences and come up with better methods of conflict resolution and containment measures.

Gun deaths can’t occur in the absence of guns.

 It’s, therefore, necessary to eliminate illegal possession of guns. Strict policies on gun ownership should also be implemented.

7) Eliminate illegal drugs to reduce impact

Drugs have a high impact on murders and other crimes. Excessive use of drugs has driven users to cause violence, crimes, and insecurity around the globe.

All anti-violence initiatives should also focus on fighting hard drugs and the results of long-term use.


With the current population of humans on earth, it’s becoming hard to monitor everybody. People also have different characters with some inclined towards committing crimes and rampant murders.

Most crimes have a link to murders, making the environment risky to live in.


The crimes need to be curbed to improve everyone’s safety.

There are several methods to prevent crimes and murders; they work well if administered in the right way. Follow-ups must also be done to examine the extent to which a method has helped.

It’s unfortunate for humans to live like animals. Therefore, everyone is tasked with ensuring safety in local communities.

Everybody has a right to live comfortably, explaining the necessity to employ ways to prevent murders.

Madeleine Smith as the 19th Century Amanda Knox

The media has dubbed Madeleine Smith as the 19th century Amanda Knox. Although both murder trials took place over 150 years apart, both women were 20 years old at the time of their trial. A few people have also pointed out other similarities between both trials.

The Background

Madeleine was accused of killing her lover Emile L’Angelier, in 1857, in a bid for him not to expose their sexual rendezvous. Her father, James Smith, had earlier disapproved of her relationship with L’Angelier, who he considered a penniless clerk. He also forbade her from seeing him.

What James and the rest of the Smith family didn’t know was how far their daughter and sibling had gone with L’Angelier. They had been intimate and were exchanging letters alluding to their sexual intimacies. James Smith then approved of a courtship between Madeleine and William Minoch, who was a richer bachelor.

Madeleine began courting Minoch by day and visiting L’Angelier by night. When she got tired of this arrangement, she decided to settle for Minoch. She then requested L’Angelier to send back her letters, which he refused. A few months later, he died from poisoning.

Amanda Knox, on the other hand, was accused of killing her roommate Meredith Kercher in 2007. Both Amanda and Meredith had come to Italy as exchange students and met in September 2007. The following month they both attended the Eurochocolate festival and a classical music concert together.

By November 2007, Kercher was found dead with signs of violence. Even though both murder cases were different, one element was common in both cases: sex.

The Appeal of Sex and Death

During the Victorian era and now, sex and death was and is still a sensational tale for the tabloids. As separate entities, sex sells, and death sells. When you add both together, you have a media frenzy.

Madeline’s accusation for killing Emilie became the murder of the century for the same reason. The amount of attention that the murder story garnered was seemingly due to her voracious appetite for sex. At least 198 letters were found from her in Emilie’s office and apartment after he died. It was the discovery of the letters between her and her lover that led to her arrest.

These letters were an essential part of Madeleine’s trial and read in court to the hearing of all. Newspapers flooded with details of the explicit content of her messages. A young woman of Glasgow’s genteel society had slept with a man, enjoyed it, and went ahead to describe her pleasure in detail.

This information was appalling. In some of Madeleine’s letters, she talked about “tender long embraces” and “being fondled by you.” She further went to state that she didn’t regret what they did. Her honesty about sex was what shocked many.

However, was there something wrong about her appeal for sex during her day? Some people may have thought her sexual appetite was unnatural. Others may think she had been ingesting a kind of energy booster like the Keto diet pills with no additives that we have today. Afterall, decency was expected from mid-class to upper-class women during the Victorian era.

What if Madeleine had lived in our day? Maybe the shock about how much she enjoyed sex wouldn’t be there. However, there would still be the appeal of sex in the media. Such was the case of Amanda Knox.

One of the accused, Rudy Guede, had denied Amanda’s involvement. However, during his appeal, he claimed that she had been in the apartment at the time of the murder. Prosecutors for Amanda’s case managed to bring in the sexual element.

Although the discovery of Madeleine’s sexual appetite weighed heavily on her, what sexual motive would Amanda Knox probably have to kill another woman? It didn’t make any sense.

The prosecution suggested that she killed her roommate due to a sexual game they were playing.  They suggested that she may have taunted Kercher, saying, “You acted goody-goody so much… now you’re going to be forced to have sex!”

They further suggested that Guede, Amanda, and Amanda’s boyfriend had held on to Kercher while Guede sexually abused her.

Results from Both Trials

Another similarity between both trials were the results the women received. After six days of trial, Madeleine Smith got a “non-proven” verdict. Even though many members of the jury believed she did it, they just couldn’t prove that she did. She ended up walking away as a free woman. Till today no one knows for sure who killed Pierre Emilie L’Angelier.

Amanda Knox was not as lucky as Madeleine in the beginning. She was initially found guilty and sentenced to 26 years in jail. After spending four years in prison, the court later acquitted her of the murder due to evidence that proved she didn’t commit the crime.

Later Life

Madeleine Smith left Glasgow after her trial ended and changed her name to Lena. She got married to George Wardle, had two kids for him, and they later got divorced. She then moved to the US and married William Sheehy. Madeleine passed on in 1928, bearing the name Lena Sheehy.

Amanda went back to America and wrote a book about her trial. Today, she’s married to Christopher Robinson, an author. She speaks at different events, and she’s an activist for wrongfully convicted people.

Madeleine Smith’s Trial: A Scotland Murder Mystery

The story of Madeleine Smith’s trial is still popular in books, musicals, and movies. After over 160 years, the murder of her lover is still a mystery. How did her story capture the minds of the public? Why is Madeleine’s story still talked about today?

The murder of Madeleine’s lover, Pierre Emile L’angelier took place in 19th century Scotland, in the city of Glasgow. Murder cases were not new in the country before then. Eight years earlier, in 1848, there had been the murder of James Young. However, in Madeleine’s case, it was called the murder of the century.

19th Century Scotland

The 19th century was an era when Scotland moved towards modernization, with Glasgow and the River Clyde being a major shipbuilding center. The lifestyle during that era was quite different from the way it is now. They were a Victorian society upholding the rules of decency greatly. This view will help you understand why Madeleine’s story gained popularity.

Madeleine’s Early Life

Madeleine Hamilton Smith was born on 29th March 1835 to a middle-class family in Glasgow. Her father, James Smith, was an architect. Her mother, Elizabeth Smith, was the daughter of David Hamilton, a neoclassical architect.

The Smith family had their home at No 7, Blythswood Square, Glasgow. They also owned a country property at Rhu, on the Power Clyde, near Helensburgh. Madeleine was sent to school in London from 1851-1853 before returning to Glasgow at age 18.

The Secret Affair

In 1855 when Madeline was 20, one of her neighbors first introduced her to Emilie L’angelier. Emile was 29 and was originally from Channels Island. He worked as a packing clerk in a warehouse at 10 Bothwell Street.

Their match was unlikely at the time. While Madeleine was from a wealthy family, Emile was a working professional who was almost ten years older. They both began a love affair. The lovers would frequently meet at Madeleine’s bedroom window at night.

The pair would also begin communicating in secret by letter. Emile would deliver by hand through her window. Madeleine used the local postal service to deliver hers. Their love letters had records of several steamy conversations relating to their sex life.

Madeleine was well aware her family would never approve of such a match due to Emile’s financial and social status. They continued the affair anyway, and Madeleine promised to marry him.

In January 1957, things took a different turn. Her family approved a proposal for her with William Harper Minnoch, whom they considered a suitable suitor. In February, Madeleine agreed to marry Minnoch and asked Emile to return her letters. He refused, threatening to forward the explicit letters to her father if she didn’t marry him.

The Murder

Between February and March that year, Madeleine was known to have made three purchases of arsenic. Her third and last purchase was on 18th March.

In the early morning of 23rd March, Emile died after falling ill. The coroner later revealed that enormous amounts of arsenic were in his stomach.

On discovering Madeleine’s letters at his apartment, the police went on a raid of her home. They found a receipt for the purchase of arsenic from a local chemist. These revelations saw Madeleine arrested on 31st March and charged with murder.

Madeleine Smith’s Trial

On 1st July 1857, Madeleine Smith’s trial began at the High Court in Edinburgh. The court learned how the deceased had spent two months battling an unknown ailment. His landlady revealed that one February morning, he had been vomiting uncontrollably, and his complexion was pale.

The jury charged Madeleine with administering arsenic on three separate occasions with the intent to kill. The poison was allegedly given through cups of cocoa to the deceased through her bedroom window. The volume of letters between the two lovers formed a core part of the trial.

Throughout the eight days of the trial, she maintained her innocence and pleaded not guilty. Due to a lack of evidence, the prosecution could not prove that Madeleine was the murderer. The jury finally returned a verdict of “not proven.”

In Scottish law, a ‘not proven’ verdict doesn’t establish the innocence of the defendant.  Rather it concludes that the prosecution does have sufficient evidence to prove that the accused is guilty. Madeleine got away scot-free, and opinions remain divided over her innocence.

The Scandal

In the context of her time, Madeleine’s letters were a shocking revelation. Not only because of her gender and class, but because of their explicit content. As a member of Glasgow’s genteel high society, she had gone against the strict Victorian conventions.

It led to many questions about womanhood at the time. How a young woman could have sex before marriage and be bold enough to write about how much she enjoyed it. It was a crucial issue to society, and her trial became a scandal in Scotland.

How’s Scotland Like Today?

The lifestyle today in Scotland, just like the rest of the world has changed, particularly as it applies to women.  Today’s Scotland is a busy industrialized nation. The country experiences short durations of extreme weather.

You can experience extreme cold one day, and the next morning you can have sunshine. Living here means you’ll have to beef up your heating and cooling system for whatever the weather brings. The best option for you during winter might be a tankless water heater. When it gets warm, an air cooler will be best.

12 Things Creative Writers Should Keep in Mind When Working from Home

If you’re a writer, chances are that you carry out most, if not all your work from the comfort of your home. There are advantages to this style of working. One of which is, it saves you resources spent on commuting from home to office and back again.

However, there are challenges too. When you work from home, you tend to let your guard down, and you might not feel obligated to get things done. This attitude can lead to unproductivity if not well managed.

To help yourself, keep these twelve things in mind when working from home.

Establishing a Schedule Helps

Having a clear guideline for when you want to start and end the day’s work will help you maintain the right work balance. Find out your most productive times and schedule more demanding tasks for those periods. If your productive work hours are in the morning, try to start your day very early so that you can accomplish more before the day is over.

There are scheduling and time management apps you can download to help yourself. Setting a schedule provides structure to your day.

There are Indoor Distractions

Writing requires undivided attention, and the slightest sound can stop your thought process. However, distractions from your kids or other people living with you are common occurrences.

Consider setting ground rules to let them know what they can or cannot do when you’re working. If you cut down distractions, it will improve the quality of your work.

Using a Dedicated Workspace is More Productive

When you dedicate a workspace strictly for your work, it will help you differentiate between work time and home time. Your workspace can be a spare room or a corner in your home where you can fix a desk and chair. Avoid spaces that your mind can associate with leisure like the couch and the bed.

You Can Get Overwhelmed

Sometimes the task at hand can overwhelm you. When this happens, stop working, relax, and clear your mind. When you come back, you will be able to focus better on your work.

Take Breaks in Between

If you established a proper schedule, there should be adequate times during the day to take breaks. Give yourself a compulsory 1-hour lunch break every day. You can use apps that will notify you to take breaks at scheduled times.

Besides lunch break, you should also take short breaks away from your computer. These are times where you stare out the window or get up to get a snack. Taking breaks in between work helps you reset and gets your blood flowing for the next task.

Making Notes is Helpful

Inspiration can come to you when you’re not working. You may be cooking or doing the laundry and get an idea. Learn to jot down every idea rather than take mental notes only. Making quick short notes will remind you when you forget.

Eating Healthy is Important

When you work from home, it is easy to binge on chips, cookies, and chocolates. While taking snacks is okay, don’t overindulge. Focus on eating healthy meals with fruits and vegetables that will boost your productivity level.

Exercising is Good for You

Exercise is beneficial to both your mind and your body. It boosts your memory, increases your happiness, and interest levels, making you work better. Regular exercises also help you maintain a good posture.

Don’t Spend the Whole Day in Pajamas

Wearing pajamas relates to leisure and not work. Try to change out of them before you resume the day’s work. Dress like you’re not at home and wear something that can give you a mindset of work.

Work Time isn’t Social Media Time

Social media has its benefits, but it can be a distraction too. Don’t fall for the temptation to go against your schedule and take social breaks. You can shut off notifications while you work. When you minimize unnecessary use of social media, you will be able to focus on getting more work done.

Be Aware of Security Risks

Keep in mind that you can be a target for hackers. Get smarter about protecting yourself from security threats. Invest in devices that can alert you when you have a security breach. Companies invest in security tools, and you should do the same.

Your Body Needs to Move

Writing from home can keep you indoors for days, especially if you have a lot of work to do. Don’t get stuck up in your home and forget there’s an actual world outside. Learn to leave the house occasionally to get fresh air and sunlight. You can take a walk around your neighborhood even for a few minutes only.

How Flexbelt Exercises Improve Your Writing Creativity

The flex belt is the abs conditioning wellness gadget that conditions the abs easily. It conveys little electrical signs when it is been lashed around the stomach. The signs at that point infiltrate somewhere down into the midriff area and it at that point causes the withdrawal of the muscle. By doing this, the muscles get solidified and because of this conditioning of abs happens. The appearance of the belt is like the back help prop however it doesn’t bolster the back of an individual. The electrical driving forces structure this kind of belt give incitement to muscular strength nerves that makes the stomach area to respond similarly as it has been exposed to the stomach activities, for example, crunches. The electrical incitement is been given through three gel cushions that are been situated over the focal stomach area and outside angled. Here are not many of the advantages of the belt one should purchase a flexbelt to test it yourself. Most writers benefit from it because most of the benefits associated with it help in creative writing.

Exertion Saving Tool:

One of the advantages of the belt is that it is exceptionally easy to utilize. As it is a belt, so you simply need to flash it around the midsection so as to condition your abs. by wearing this sort of belt, you don’t really need to do any exercises so as to condition the abs. Subsequently, it conditions the abs without the dynamic support of the general population wearing it In this way, the belt is the help for those individuals who have limitations for the serious exercises. With this kind of belt, the general population can condition the abs without working much on it Consequently, it is been considered as the exertion sparing device.

Efficient Tool:

As your abs are conditioned by wearing the belt so you don’t generally need to work. Along these lines, the belt enables you to do various errands while wearing it You can stare at the TV, read, talk and loosen up by wearing it Along these lines, it spares parcel of your time A standout amongst the best things about it is that you can condition your abs regardless of whether you are indoor or at your work. Along these lines, it is painful for the bustling people. Along these lines, it is a brilliant efficient instrument.

Region Saving Tool:

This sort of belt is transportable. As it is basically a belt so you can keep it alongside you wherever you go. You are likewise ready to store it inside your pack, organizer, and others. In this manner, a belt is a space sparing instrument.


The flex belt is been utilizing the best restorative innovation that causes the general population to get conditioned stomach without rehearsing troublesome and difficult activities. This sort of belt is structured by the medicinal organization, so it implies that it has been verified therapeutically not to hurt your body. In particular, this belt is been intended to work for everybody and the innovation that is been utilized gives ensure results to every single client. On the off chance that you need to have well-defined abs or level stomach, at that point you ought to without a doubt attempt this belt.

The wellness advantages of the Flex Belt appear to be two overlays. While you can tone and reinforce your stomach muscles, you can likewise utilize the item to fix your muscles after a strenuous exercise. To work extra pieces of your body, you can buy different extras that work with the Flex Belt.

What individuals appear to like most about the Flex Belt is that it tends to be utilized pretty much anyplace. The belt is explicitly intended to fit watchfully undergarments. The $199 sticker price has accumulated a few protests by customers, however, this is by all accounts minimized by the positive outcomes they got.

How Coffee Boost Your Writing Creativity

Creativity is one of the main elements required to become a good writer. Many people are too much creative by nature and their skill help them producing a good number of creative masterpieces. However, on the other hand, there might be some other factors involved that can affect your creativity.

Work stress or sleeplessness may affect a writer’s mental capabilities resulting in unusual stress. If a writer facing mental stress or other problems like sleeplessness, there might be a chance that he can no make proper use of its creativity.

Coffee is liked by almost every person whether he is a writer or any other professional. Besides its delicious taste, it is also considered as a tasty treat and an energetic snack. However, the research has proven that coffee helps people a lot reducing their stress level. Similarly, it is the key element that helps you boost your mental capabilities and creativity.

How coffee boost your writing creativity?

If you are a writer just like me, you might be curious about how coffee boosts your writing creativity. Well, here you can get the answer to all your questions and queries. Coffee helps the person in the following ways.

  • Increases your energy level
  • Consuming a cup of coffee enhances your short-term memory.
  • Consuming a cup of coffee decreases your mental fatigue.
  • Coffee can increase your physical and cognitive performance.
  • Consuming coffee makes you alert and keeps you awake.
  • Coffee helps you increase your ability to concentrate and focus on a particular point.

Energy level

If are a coffee lover, then you must have noticed the sudden boost in your energy level after consuming a cup of coffee. Right? This is the reason why we love to have a cup of coffee in the morning. It not only refreshes our mind but also gives us a push to start our day energetically.

Mental Fatigue

We all get a lot stressed up after working for 6 to 8 hours. However, the coffee helps us reducing our mental fatigue and keeps us fresh and active throughout the day.

Increases your Performance

As | have mentioned earlier, if you are feeling restless or you are tired of working anymore, you should have a cup of coffee just in order to increase your performance without affecting your creativity.

Focus and concentrate

The focus is very essential for a creative writer. You cannot produce a mind-blowing article without properly focusing on what you are thinking and writing. Coffee helps you totally focus and concentrate on what you are writing.

Can coffee make you fat?

Other than boosting our energy and reducing our stress, can coffee make you fat as well? Medical research has shown that coffee remains within our body for 4 to 6 hours. Therefore, consuming too much of coffee can:

  • Affect hormone Functioning
  • Increase our belly fat
  • Make our blood pressure high
  • Make your cells Insulin resistant and cause diabetes.

What do we do?

To deal with the above situation, I suggest you take a moderate amount of coffee per day along with safe decaffeinated coffee brands and other healthy diets to keep you fit and healthy.

Robert Napier


The Father of Clyde Shipbuilding


Brian D. Osborne

(Printed, 1991, by Dumbarton District Libraries, Dumbarton, Scotland)Robert Napier, the man often described as ‘the father of Clyde shipbuilding”, was born on 21st June 1791, to James and Jean Napier, in their home in Walker’s Close in the High Street of Dumbarton. The boy grew up to become one of the great Victorian industrialists and to do more than any other man of his age to make the Clyde the world’s pre-eminent shipbuilding river. James Napier came from an established Dumbarton family of engineers, blacksmiths and mill-wrights; he and his brother John were in partnership locally, while a third brother, Robert, left to become blacksmith to the Duke of Argyll at Inveraray. James, John and Robert’s mother was Jean Denny, from another Dumbarton family destined to achieve fame as shipbuilders and engineers.

The firm did mill-wright work for the textile industry of the Vale of Leven and sub-contract finishing work on cannon cast at the Clyde Iron Works. The Napiers’ works boasted two steam engines, one a Newcomen type used to power a boring mill. Robert was born into a prosperous family business at a time when the effects of the Industrial Revolution were becoming increasingly evident – as demonstrated by the Newcomen engine. His childhood and apprenticeship almost exactly coincide with the period of the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic wars. Wartime demand for munitions and equipment increased the prosperity of firms such as the Napiers up and down the land.

Robert was sent to the Burgh School where, in addition to the regular curriculum, he had lessons in drawing, a course of study whose long term effects were perhaps seen in his later interest in painting and the fine arts. His father had hoped Robert would enter the ministry of the Church of Scotland but the boy’s interests lay in the family business and the chance of a university education went to his younger brother Peter, who became Minister of Blackfriars Church in Glasgow. At sixteen Robert became apprenticed to his father. At first no formal indenture was signed but near capture in a raid on Dumbarton by a Navy press-gang led, two years after he started work, to a contract being drawn up – an indentured apprentice being exempt from forced conscription.

His five year apprenticeship complete Robert worked on for a time in Dumbarton as a Journeyman with his father but then moved to Edinburgh to gain wider experience. After a difficult start, when, in his own graphic phrase: … he had often to count the lamp-posts for his supper, he secured a position with Robert Stevenson, the founder of another dynasty of famous engineers, the engineer to the Northern Lighthouse Board and famed as the builder of the Bell Rock lighthouse.

In 1815 he went into business on his own account. Borrowing £50 from his father, he rented premises in Greyfriar’s Wynd off the High Street of Glasgow and took on two apprentices. On 21st August he was admitted as a Burgess of Glasgow and four days later entered the body which regulated the city’s engineering trades, The Incorporation of Hammermen – as the Register records: Robert Napier, Smith in Glasgow, a Freeman’s son, made and gave in a Bored Hammer as his Essay, and showed his burgess ticket 

He was not the first Napier with a Glasgow connection as the Register shows, his father was a Freeman and his uncle John had in 1802 set up business near Jamaica Street. Robert soon became active in the affairs of the Hammermen, becoming Collector in 1818 and Deacon in 1820. In 1818 he married his cousin Isabella, John Napier’s daughter and moved to a house in Weaver Street near Glasgow Cathedral. His work in these first years was varied – in the early 1820’s he had a contract to manufacture pipes for a Glasgow waterworks scheme and produced a 12 h.p. steam engine for a Dundee mill.

This last was useful experience for his entry into the field of marine steam engines which came in 1823 – just eleven years after Henry Bell’s “Comet” had sailed down the Clyde to revolutionise maritime transport. Napier always acknowledged Henry Bell’s pioneering efforts; in 1826 he, with the other leading Clyde engineers signed a testimonial to the part Bell had played in the development of steam navigation. In 1851 he erected a statue of the pioneer in Rhu churchyard and in 1872 was a major contributor to the cost of erecting the Bell Monument in West Clyde Street, Helensburgh.

Robert’s local connections undoubtedly helped him to win, from the Dumbarton ship-builder and shipowner James Lang, the engine contract for the “Leven” steamer. This may have been Napier’s first marine engine but it was a good one – so good that it was later fitted to another ship, “Queen of Beauty” and later presented to Dumbarton by Napier’s heirs. This remarkable relic of the first days of steam still survives and has now found an appropriate resting place outside the former Denny Ship Model Experiment Tank. The ” Leven” engine was built at Robert’s new premises at Camlachie Foundry which he had leased in 1821 from his cousin (and brother-in-law) David.

In 1827 a light-hearted event proved to have profound implications for Napier’s career. The Northern Yacht Club at their August Regatta promoted a steamboat race for a twenty guinea cup. The Clyde’s crack boats competed but the two fastest vessels proved to be the Napier engined “Clarence” and “Helensburgh”, a success which greatly enhanced Napier’s reputation. In 1828 Robert established the Vulcan Foundry in Glasgow’s Washington Street and his order book continued to grow. Not the least of Napier’s contributions to Clyde shipbuilding were the many leading shipbuilders and engineers who trained under him or who were, at a formative stage in their careers, employed by him. For example James Thomson was employed as Napier’s leading smith in 1828 and later went on with his brother George (also an ex-Napier employee) to found the Clydebank shipyard of j & G Thomson, which is probably better known by its later name of John Brown & Company, and many other Clydeside yards were run by old Napier men.

By the early 1830’s Napier had become a figure of note in engineering circles and was being consulted on the possibilities of a steamship service from Liverpool to New York. An expanding workload persuaded him to lease, in 1836, David Napier’s Lancefield Works. Robert had previously specialised in building engines for coastal steamers but 1835 saw an important contract from the East India Company to engine their ocean-going paddle sloop “Berenice”. English engineers criticised this major contract going to a provincial builder. When, however, “Berenice” beat her Thames built consort “Atlanta” by 18 days on their maiden passages to India the critics were answered.

Robert’s greatest contribution to international shipping came through his work for Samuel Cunard. Cunard, a Canadian business-man and shipowner, planned a regular transatlantic liner service with an eye to the valuable Government mail contract and came to England early in 1839 to open up negotiations. Despite warnings from London and Liverpool interests, suspicious of the developing Clyde shipbuilding industry, Cunard decided to come to Scotland for his ships. Napier had given much thought to a transatlantic service and so was soon able to produce specifications for the planned 800 ton, 300 h.p. ships. He however soon convinced Cunard that larger and more powerful ships would meet his needs better, offering to cut his profit in order to get Cunard to invest in the bigger vessels.

In fact the three 375 h.p. 960 ton ships contracted for were never built. As a result of changed Government requirements and pressure from Napier, who as always detested the idea of a sub-standard job: … I cannot and will not admit of anything into these engines but what … is sound and good the contract eventually provided for four 420hp 1150 ton ships one of which, the “Caledonia”, was built in Dumbarton at Charles Wood’s premises at the Dockyard.

The extra ship and the increase in size raised Cunard’s costs and there was little evidence of support from English investors. Napier, with a group of Glasgow friends and business partners, was able to float the British and North American Royal Mail Steam Packet Coy. (which later became the Cunard Steam Ship Coy. Ltd.) with Samuel Cunard as the main shareholder, Napier himself investing £6100 of the initial capital of £270,000. Establishing this great shipping company was no easy task – the mail contract might be lucrative but the penalty clauses for delay were severe. It was largely Napier’s reputation and his proven ability to provide reliable and powerful engines which persuaded his fellow Glaswegians to invest in Cunard’s high-risk venture.

As significant as the Cunard connection was Napier’s first Admiralty contract. This came in 1838 and was for engines for the paddle sloops “Vesuvius” and “Stromboli”. Ordering these engines from Clydeside (the ships being built at Sheerness and Portsmouth respectively) was a radical departure for a highly conservative Admiralty. In any case still somewhat suspicious of steam-ships, they preferred dealing with the Thames-side builders and engineers. Despite the success of the Napier-built engines the Admiralty reverted to their usual suppliers and did not place further orders in Glasgow. Some official embarrassment was doubtless caused by a Parliamentary Question, asking for original costs, costs of repairs and time out of commission for steam vessels ordered between 1839 and 1843. The reply proved Napier’s engines to be cheaper and more reliable than those from the English yards. Thereafter Napier was a regular Admiralty contractor!

Up to 1841 Napier had been solely an engine builder, although often acting as a contract manager for his clients; the hull contracts very often going to John Wood at Port Glasgow. Wood was however solely a builder of wooden ships and the demand for iron construction was growing fast. Napier took steps to expand his company to meet these new challenges; his brother James left a partnership with their cousin William to join Robert, who exercised his option to buy Lancefield. Later that year he bought land and established his own iron shipbuilding yard at Govan. In 1842 his company was strengthened by appointing his talented kinsman William Denny (II) as … draftsman, modeller and inspector … and to give instruction to your sons regarding drafting and building of vessels.

The new yard, whose first launch came in June 1843 with the aptly named “Vanguard” for the Dublin & Glasgow Steam Packet Coy., was soon busy with the contract for the Royal Navy’s first iron steamers, the gun-vessels “Jackal”, “Lizard” and “Bloodhound”. Napier’s connection with the Navy was not confined to building its ships. The Navy was adjusting, with difficulties, to the new age of steam but lacked facilities to train its officers in engineering. Napier was asked to allow the attachment of naval officers to his yard to learn something of the vessels they would be serving in.

Napier’s record of achievements is remarkable. In 1849 he built “Leviathan”, the world’s first train ferry, for the North British Railway’s service from Granton to Burntisland. When the beautiful Cunarder “Persia” was launched in 1854 she was the world’s largest ship. The ironclad “Black Prince” launched from Govan in 1861 was, at 9800 tons, the largest ship built on the Clyde to that time.

His fame and reputation was now international. A juror at the Crystal Palace Great Exhibition in 1851 he served in a similar capacity at the Paris Exhibition of 1855 and was appointed a Chevalier of the Legion D’Honneur by Napoleon III. In 1863 he became President of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers.

Although by the late 1860’s he had largely retired he still maintained his overseas links. In 1867 Napoleon III appointed him a Royal Commissioner at the Paris Exhibition and he was presented to the Empress Eugenie. Napier was consulted and respected by Governments all over Europe. He received high honours from France and Denmark but not from his own country. The British Government, which Napier had served so well in the modernisation of the Navy and the training of its officers, never honoured him. Quite why is unclear. Perhaps he had made himself unpopular in his earlier days by his forthright and independent attitude and the efforts of supporters to prove the superiority of his products had doubtless proved irritating to some vested interests.

There is no evidence that Napier was upset by this lack of official recognition. He had many other compensations; a long and happy marriage, the success of his business, the respect of his peers. He was also a keen art collector and his home, West Shandon, housed a remarkable collection of paintings, furniture, porcelain etc. In 1833 he had bought land by the Gareloch to build a cottage but later decided to build an imposing mansion capable of housing this art collection and designed to his tastes by the Glasgow architect John Thomas Rochead. After his death the house sold for £37,500. The art collection, which included old masters of the Dutch, French and Italian schools as well as work by nineteenth century artists like Raeburn and Horatio McCulloch realised £49,000, a figure which needs to be multiplied some 25 to 30 times to translate to present day values. West Shandon was completed by 1852 and many visitors to the area were welcomed there by the tall, distinguished figure of Robert Napier. It was his custom, unusual to the point of eccentricity in the formal Victorian era, to greet all his female visitors with a “Shandon salute” – a kiss on the cheek. This courtesy he even made so bold as to extend to Queen Victoria’s daughter, Princess Louise, who visited him in 1871 after her marriage to the Marquess of Lorne (later the 9th Duke of Argyll). The Princess was, it is reported, amused rather than offended by the old man’s gallantry.

His wife Isabella died in 1875 after a marriage of 57 years. Napier’s grief was profound and he lost interest in his usual pursuits. Shortly afterwards he suffered a serious illness from which he made only a partial recovery and on 23rd June 1876 died at West Shandon aged 85.

He was buried in the family vault in the Parish Churchyard of Dumbarton. The body came by road from Shandon by the Gareloch, where ships at anchor flew their flags at half mast, through Helensburgh, where the streets were lined and the bells of the three town churches tolled for an hour. Fourteen hundred of his firm’s workmen came from Glasgow and Govan by special train to Dalreoch and accompanied the coffin for the last mile to its burying place.

An obituary in the ‘Glasgow Herald” summed up Napier’s character well: The value of a life like that of Robert Napier is its great earnestness and singleness of purpose. He might have become a rich man much sooner than he did if he had scamped his work and had only pecuniary results in view. These he utterly disregarded. He was a poor financier, but he was a noble workman, with a soul above money and meanness in all its forms.

One might dispute whether he was in fact so poor a financier as the writer suggests. His estate which included the shipyard and large property interests in Glasgow and shareholdings in a various other industrial concerns realised well over £400,000 – or perhaps £10 to 12 million in today’s values. That he was a noble workman cannot be denied. Sir James Melvill of the East India Company wrote to Napier in 1856 and told him that he was: … the man who, above all other living men, was given practical effect to the inventions of Watt, and has passed to the world the great blessing of steam navigation. I in my conscience believe that the best vessels afloat are those with which you have had to do.

By his pioneering efforts, his noted insistence on quality and good workmanship, his technical innovation, and his encouragement of many of the leading shipbuilders and engineers of his day and of the next generation, Robert Napier did more than any other to establish the Clyde’s world-wide reputation and may indeed with justice be called “the father of Clyde shipbuilding.”

Copyright ©1991 Brian D. Osborne

[With thanks to Mr Brian D. Osborne for his permission to reproduce this article]