The Fight against Homicide: 10 Ways to Safeguard Your Home & Self from Murders

Crime reports are ever on the rise with rape, homicide and robbery being the most common crimes.

The U.S., according to the Bureau of Justice Statistics, has a homicide crime rate of 7.9% in every population of 100,000.

One of the worst crimes is homicide. Many people have been murdered both at home and even away from home. A home invasion occurs when offenders enter your house illegally with weapons they use to rob and injure their victims.

Therefore, it’s important to safeguard yourself and family from such intrusions and related murders. Here’re ten ways you can safeguard your home and self from murders:

  • Invest in an alarm system
  • Install windows with sensors
  • Install a smart home system
  • Put up security signs and stickers around your home
  • Install security cameras
  • Make it a habit to lock your windows and doors
  • Tint your windows using a window film
  • Use motion lights in your compound
  • Change your locks often
  • Arm yourself with licensed weapons

Top 10 Tips to Improving Your Home Security against Homicides

1. Invest in an alarm system

Alarm systems are an effective way of putting off any intruders that may want to break into your house. Whenever offenders and crime doers are aware that your home is fitted with an alarm system, they shy off and would not want to be noticed.

Crime committers don’t always want to be noticed. When your alarm goes off as they approach, they’re likely to leave faster, leaving your home secure.

However, some countries don’t allow their citizens to install alarm systems unless they get a permit. Check out your country’s laws and apply for a license.

2. Install windows with sensors

When you add sensors to your windows and doors, you get notified whenever someone tries to open or close them. If you want to secure yourself and home, protect your home to prevent any potential entrances and break-ins.

3. Install a smart home system

To automatically protect your home from intruders, invest in a smart system in your home.

You won’t be able to watch around your home all the time, but with the smart system, you can be notified when someone intrudes into your home.

Some appliances you can install into a smart home for protection include:

  • Smart lighting
  • Smart cameras
  • Smart speakers
  • Smart smoke and breakage detectors

Designed for easy installation, you can also easily add heaters to your smart system. Some good options include the Takagi tankless water heaters.

The appliances are automated.


You can customize them to detect an intrusion and raise the alarm if your home is under attack.

4. Use security signs and stickers around your home

Security signs scare away crime doers.

Offenders often love easy targets. If they find a security sign in your place, they’re likely to shy off and look elsewhere for easy targets.

Don’t use fake signs; professional killers know how to differentiate genuine signs from fakes.

5. Install security cameras

Cameras capture every moment as it happens. Therefore, installing some around your home is a sure way to capture crime doers on the act. The security devices can also cause intruders to shy off your premises.

Cameras can even be used in a court of law to sue offenders. If you can’t afford proper security cameras, modify your old phones and turn them into the security gadgets.

6. Make it a habit to lock your windows and doors

Intruders have several ways of accessing a person’s home. They can easily access your home if they find your doors and windows unlocked. Even so, some people still leave their doors open.

This can be dangerous, especially if a killer is aiming at attacking you. For sliding glass doors, use secure glass doors to make them difficult to cut.

7. Tint your windows using a window film

Transparent windows are awesome because you can see right through them. You’re able to view your compound from inside your home. But, the danger comes in if an intruder can see you from outside.

Add a film to your window so that whoever is outside can’t see anything happening in the house. This way, they won’t get enough information to plan for an attack.

8. Use motion lights in your compound

Light up your compound at night using motion lights. Illuminate all your entrances so you can see anyone who enters your home at night. This way, crime doers will shy away because they usually prefer to attack at night in darkness.

You can automate your lights so that when the sense motion is triggered, the bulbs light up.

9. Change your locks often

If someone wants to harm you, they’re likely to follow and monitor your steps every time. They could get their hands on your keys, hence the need to change your locks after some time.

This ensures that even if intruders get access to your key, they won’t be able to open your new locks.

10. Arm yourself with licensed weapons

Security starts with you as an individual.

Keep some safety weapons with you in the house for security reasons. In case of an attack, you can scare away a criminal, and even defend yourself against being harmed.

We hope that you found these tips handy!

7 Proven Ways to Prevent Murders

Safety is an essential factor in the modern society.

On the night of the Republican Convention that was focused on making America safe again, no exact answer explained how policymakers intended to secure America.

Many countries face challenges on how to efficiently prevent crimes and murders. The solutions that governments often come up with are never implemented fully. This has been attributed to corruption and the lack of enough resources in some countries.

More reliable evidence shows that high levels of gun ownership cause countries to experience high levels of violence and murders.

Another factor is alcohol consumption. According to the Alcohol Rehab Guide, 40% of the crimes are due to alcohol consumption.

Several other factors cause crimes. Here’re proven ways to fight and prevent murders and crimes in America:

7 Preventing Measures against Gruesome Murders

1) Implement strict policies on alcohol

There is a link between alcohol and violence. A study done in 2010 found that alcohol stores are strongly linked to gun assaults. Being in possession of a gun while drunk is, therefore, not allowed.

Policies can be implemented to limit issues related to alcohol in America and other countries across the world. Some of these policies include:

  • High taxes on alcohol
  • Minimizing the number of alcohol outlets
  • Denying alcohol users who commit offenses after drinking the right to drink.

2) Deploy focused deterrence policing

Proper understanding of community policing and executing it is essential to curbing murders and other crimes. The right community policy is based on the “focused deterrence policing” strategy, which is impactful.

It focuses on a community’s specific problems such as gun violence and rampant murders. It then follows the trail of the individuals and groups involved in such acts and focuses on them.

The community is strongly responsible for conveying strict and transparent standards against violence.

3) Fight identity theft

Identity theft is another factor that can, in one way or the other, lead to other crimes and, even worse, murder. It ranges from financial, criminal, medical, synthetic, driver’s license, and insurance identity thefts.

Criminals can steal your identity and use it to commit crimes, including murder. They also leave the trails of other crimes.

Smart criminals use identity theft to commit criminals so that they can hide from being identified and charged. The following are some ways you can help reduce identity theft:

  • Destroy pieces of evidence showing your personal information such as your account statements and education certificates.
  • Don’t leave trails like your debit and credit card receipts behind.
  • Live a private life and avoid giving your personal information to anybody, especially on social media.
  • Get used to creating strong passwords for your accounts.
  • Secure your data online as criminals use various tactics to get hold of your identity.
  • Sign up for identity theft prevention services that offer identity theft monitoring and status account checking. For instance, LifeLock solutions can protect you from being a victim of identity theft.

4) Raise the allowed school drop-out age

Raise the age or grade limit at which a person is allowed to drop out of school. Students should be kept for long in school; the further they continue their studies, the lesser their likelihood of committing a crime.

When students complete their studies, they’re likely to land good, well-paying jobs. This immensely reduces their tendency to take part in criminal practices for money.

5) Treat violence and murders just like public health concerns

Governments and citizens need to use various methods, including campaigns and technology, to reach every individual and warn them of the effects of crime.

Every individual needs to feel important and appreciated in society to reduce the number of people who feel neglected.

Otherwise, they can easily develop bizarre behaviors inclined towards committing crimes and murders.

6) Learn from past experiences & focus on gun control

Past human rights violation practices and neglect of particular groups of people in society led to crimes and murders. Learn from previous experiences and come up with better methods of conflict resolution and containment measures.

Gun deaths can’t occur in the absence of guns.

 It’s, therefore, necessary to eliminate illegal possession of guns. Strict policies on gun ownership should also be implemented.

7) Eliminate illegal drugs to reduce impact

Drugs have a high impact on murders and other crimes. Excessive use of drugs has driven users to cause violence, crimes, and insecurity around the globe.

All anti-violence initiatives should also focus on fighting hard drugs and the results of long-term use.


With the current population of humans on earth, it’s becoming hard to monitor everybody. People also have different characters with some inclined towards committing crimes and rampant murders.

Most crimes have a link to murders, making the environment risky to live in.


The crimes need to be curbed to improve everyone’s safety.

There are several methods to prevent crimes and murders; they work well if administered in the right way. Follow-ups must also be done to examine the extent to which a method has helped.

It’s unfortunate for humans to live like animals. Therefore, everyone is tasked with ensuring safety in local communities.

Everybody has a right to live comfortably, explaining the necessity to employ ways to prevent murders.

Madeleine Smith as the 19th Century Amanda Knox

The media has dubbed Madeleine Smith as the 19th century Amanda Knox. Although both murder trials took place over 150 years apart, both women were 20 years old at the time of their trial. A few people have also pointed out other similarities between both trials.

The Background

Madeleine was accused of killing her lover Emile L’Angelier, in 1857, in a bid for him not to expose their sexual rendezvous. Her father, James Smith, had earlier disapproved of her relationship with L’Angelier, who he considered a penniless clerk. He also forbade her from seeing him.

What James and the rest of the Smith family didn’t know was how far their daughter and sibling had gone with L’Angelier. They had been intimate and were exchanging letters alluding to their sexual intimacies. James Smith then approved of a courtship between Madeleine and William Minoch, who was a richer bachelor.

Madeleine began courting Minoch by day and visiting L’Angelier by night. When she got tired of this arrangement, she decided to settle for Minoch. She then requested L’Angelier to send back her letters, which he refused. A few months later, he died from poisoning.

Amanda Knox, on the other hand, was accused of killing her roommate Meredith Kercher in 2007. Both Amanda and Meredith had come to Italy as exchange students and met in September 2007. The following month they both attended the Eurochocolate festival and a classical music concert together.

By November 2007, Kercher was found dead with signs of violence. Even though both murder cases were different, one element was common in both cases: sex.

The Appeal of Sex and Death

During the Victorian era and now, sex and death was and is still a sensational tale for the tabloids. As separate entities, sex sells, and death sells. When you add both together, you have a media frenzy.

Madeline’s accusation for killing Emilie became the murder of the century for the same reason. The amount of attention that the murder story garnered was seemingly due to her voracious appetite for sex. At least 198 letters were found from her in Emilie’s office and apartment after he died. It was the discovery of the letters between her and her lover that led to her arrest.

These letters were an essential part of Madeleine’s trial and read in court to the hearing of all. Newspapers flooded with details of the explicit content of her messages. A young woman of Glasgow’s genteel society had slept with a man, enjoyed it, and went ahead to describe her pleasure in detail.

This information was appalling. In some of Madeleine’s letters, she talked about “tender long embraces” and “being fondled by you.” She further went to state that she didn’t regret what they did. Her honesty about sex was what shocked many.

However, was there something wrong about her appeal for sex during her day? Some people may have thought her sexual appetite was unnatural. Others may think she had been ingesting a kind of energy booster like the Keto diet pills with no additives that we have today. Afterall, decency was expected from mid-class to upper-class women during the Victorian era.

What if Madeleine had lived in our day? Maybe the shock about how much she enjoyed sex wouldn’t be there. However, there would still be the appeal of sex in the media. Such was the case of Amanda Knox.

One of the accused, Rudy Guede, had denied Amanda’s involvement. However, during his appeal, he claimed that she had been in the apartment at the time of the murder. Prosecutors for Amanda’s case managed to bring in the sexual element.

Although the discovery of Madeleine’s sexual appetite weighed heavily on her, what sexual motive would Amanda Knox probably have to kill another woman? It didn’t make any sense.

The prosecution suggested that she killed her roommate due to a sexual game they were playing.  They suggested that she may have taunted Kercher, saying, “You acted goody-goody so much… now you’re going to be forced to have sex!”

They further suggested that Guede, Amanda, and Amanda’s boyfriend had held on to Kercher while Guede sexually abused her.

Results from Both Trials

Another similarity between both trials were the results the women received. After six days of trial, Madeleine Smith got a “non-proven” verdict. Even though many members of the jury believed she did it, they just couldn’t prove that she did. She ended up walking away as a free woman. Till today no one knows for sure who killed Pierre Emilie L’Angelier.

Amanda Knox was not as lucky as Madeleine in the beginning. She was initially found guilty and sentenced to 26 years in jail. After spending four years in prison, the court later acquitted her of the murder due to evidence that proved she didn’t commit the crime.

Later Life

Madeleine Smith left Glasgow after her trial ended and changed her name to Lena. She got married to George Wardle, had two kids for him, and they later got divorced. She then moved to the US and married William Sheehy. Madeleine passed on in 1928, bearing the name Lena Sheehy.

Amanda went back to America and wrote a book about her trial. Today, she’s married to Christopher Robinson, an author. She speaks at different events, and she’s an activist for wrongfully convicted people.

Madeleine Smith’s Trial: A Scotland Murder Mystery

The story of Madeleine Smith’s trial is still popular in books, musicals, and movies. After over 160 years, the murder of her lover is still a mystery. How did her story capture the minds of the public? Why is Madeleine’s story still talked about today?

The murder of Madeleine’s lover, Pierre Emile L’angelier took place in 19th century Scotland, in the city of Glasgow. Murder cases were not new in the country before then. Eight years earlier, in 1848, there had been the murder of James Young. However, in Madeleine’s case, it was called the murder of the century.

19th Century Scotland

The 19th century was an era when Scotland moved towards modernization, with Glasgow and the River Clyde being a major shipbuilding center. The lifestyle during that era was quite different from the way it is now. They were a Victorian society upholding the rules of decency greatly. This view will help you understand why Madeleine’s story gained popularity.

Madeleine’s Early Life

Madeleine Hamilton Smith was born on 29th March 1835 to a middle-class family in Glasgow. Her father, James Smith, was an architect. Her mother, Elizabeth Smith, was the daughter of David Hamilton, a neoclassical architect.

The Smith family had their home at No 7, Blythswood Square, Glasgow. They also owned a country property at Rhu, on the Power Clyde, near Helensburgh. Madeleine was sent to school in London from 1851-1853 before returning to Glasgow at age 18.

The Secret Affair

In 1855 when Madeline was 20, one of her neighbors first introduced her to Emilie L’angelier. Emile was 29 and was originally from Channels Island. He worked as a packing clerk in a warehouse at 10 Bothwell Street.

Their match was unlikely at the time. While Madeleine was from a wealthy family, Emile was a working professional who was almost ten years older. They both began a love affair. The lovers would frequently meet at Madeleine’s bedroom window at night.

The pair would also begin communicating in secret by letter. Emile would deliver by hand through her window. Madeleine used the local postal service to deliver hers. Their love letters had records of several steamy conversations relating to their sex life.

Madeleine was well aware her family would never approve of such a match due to Emile’s financial and social status. They continued the affair anyway, and Madeleine promised to marry him.

In January 1957, things took a different turn. Her family approved a proposal for her with William Harper Minnoch, whom they considered a suitable suitor. In February, Madeleine agreed to marry Minnoch and asked Emile to return her letters. He refused, threatening to forward the explicit letters to her father if she didn’t marry him.

The Murder

Between February and March that year, Madeleine was known to have made three purchases of arsenic. Her third and last purchase was on 18th March.

In the early morning of 23rd March, Emile died after falling ill. The coroner later revealed that enormous amounts of arsenic were in his stomach.

On discovering Madeleine’s letters at his apartment, the police went on a raid of her home. They found a receipt for the purchase of arsenic from a local chemist. These revelations saw Madeleine arrested on 31st March and charged with murder.

Madeleine Smith’s Trial

On 1st July 1857, Madeleine Smith’s trial began at the High Court in Edinburgh. The court learned how the deceased had spent two months battling an unknown ailment. His landlady revealed that one February morning, he had been vomiting uncontrollably, and his complexion was pale.

The jury charged Madeleine with administering arsenic on three separate occasions with the intent to kill. The poison was allegedly given through cups of cocoa to the deceased through her bedroom window. The volume of letters between the two lovers formed a core part of the trial.

Throughout the eight days of the trial, she maintained her innocence and pleaded not guilty. Due to a lack of evidence, the prosecution could not prove that Madeleine was the murderer. The jury finally returned a verdict of “not proven.”

In Scottish law, a ‘not proven’ verdict doesn’t establish the innocence of the defendant.  Rather it concludes that the prosecution does have sufficient evidence to prove that the accused is guilty. Madeleine got away scot-free, and opinions remain divided over her innocence.

The Scandal

In the context of her time, Madeleine’s letters were a shocking revelation. Not only because of her gender and class, but because of their explicit content. As a member of Glasgow’s genteel high society, she had gone against the strict Victorian conventions.

It led to many questions about womanhood at the time. How a young woman could have sex before marriage and be bold enough to write about how much she enjoyed it. It was a crucial issue to society, and her trial became a scandal in Scotland.

How’s Scotland Like Today?

The lifestyle today in Scotland, just like the rest of the world has changed, particularly as it applies to women.  Today’s Scotland is a busy industrialized nation. The country experiences short durations of extreme weather.

You can experience extreme cold one day, and the next morning you can have sunshine. Living here means you’ll have to beef up your heating and cooling system for whatever the weather brings. The best option for you during winter might be a tankless water heater. When it gets warm, an air cooler will be best.

12 Things Creative Writers Should Keep in Mind When Working from Home

If you’re a writer, chances are that you carry out most, if not all your work from the comfort of your home. There are advantages to this style of working. One of which is, it saves you resources spent on commuting from home to office and back again.

However, there are challenges too. When you work from home, you tend to let your guard down, and you might not feel obligated to get things done. This attitude can lead to unproductivity if not well managed.

To help yourself, keep these twelve things in mind when working from home.

Establishing a Schedule Helps

Having a clear guideline for when you want to start and end the day’s work will help you maintain the right work balance. Find out your most productive times and schedule more demanding tasks for those periods. If your productive work hours are in the morning, try to start your day very early so that you can accomplish more before the day is over.

There are scheduling and time management apps you can download to help yourself. Setting a schedule provides structure to your day.

There are Indoor Distractions

Writing requires undivided attention, and the slightest sound can stop your thought process. However, distractions from your kids or other people living with you are common occurrences.

Consider setting ground rules to let them know what they can or cannot do when you’re working. If you cut down distractions, it will improve the quality of your work.

Using a Dedicated Workspace is More Productive

When you dedicate a workspace strictly for your work, it will help you differentiate between work time and home time. Your workspace can be a spare room or a corner in your home where you can fix a desk and chair. Avoid spaces that your mind can associate with leisure like the couch and the bed.

You Can Get Overwhelmed

Sometimes the task at hand can overwhelm you. When this happens, stop working, relax, and clear your mind. When you come back, you will be able to focus better on your work.

Take Breaks in Between

If you established a proper schedule, there should be adequate times during the day to take breaks. Give yourself a compulsory 1-hour lunch break every day. You can use apps that will notify you to take breaks at scheduled times.

Besides lunch break, you should also take short breaks away from your computer. These are times where you stare out the window or get up to get a snack. Taking breaks in between work helps you reset and gets your blood flowing for the next task.

Making Notes is Helpful

Inspiration can come to you when you’re not working. You may be cooking or doing the laundry and get an idea. Learn to jot down every idea rather than take mental notes only. Making quick short notes will remind you when you forget.

Eating Healthy is Important

When you work from home, it is easy to binge on chips, cookies, and chocolates. While taking snacks is okay, don’t overindulge. Focus on eating healthy meals with fruits and vegetables that will boost your productivity level.

Exercising is Good for You

Exercise is beneficial to both your mind and your body. It boosts your memory, increases your happiness, and interest levels, making you work better. Regular exercises also help you maintain a good posture.

Don’t Spend the Whole Day in Pajamas

Wearing pajamas relates to leisure and not work. Try to change out of them before you resume the day’s work. Dress like you’re not at home and wear something that can give you a mindset of work.

Work Time isn’t Social Media Time

Social media has its benefits, but it can be a distraction too. Don’t fall for the temptation to go against your schedule and take social breaks. You can shut off notifications while you work. When you minimize unnecessary use of social media, you will be able to focus on getting more work done.

Be Aware of Security Risks

Keep in mind that you can be a target for hackers. Get smarter about protecting yourself from security threats. Invest in devices that can alert you when you have a security breach. Companies invest in security tools, and you should do the same.

Your Body Needs to Move

Writing from home can keep you indoors for days, especially if you have a lot of work to do. Don’t get stuck up in your home and forget there’s an actual world outside. Learn to leave the house occasionally to get fresh air and sunlight. You can take a walk around your neighborhood even for a few minutes only.

How Flexbelt Exercises Improve Your Writing Creativity

The flex belt is the abs conditioning wellness gadget that conditions the abs easily. It conveys little electrical signs when it is been lashed around the stomach. The signs at that point infiltrate somewhere down into the midriff area and it at that point causes the withdrawal of the muscle. By doing this, the muscles get solidified and because of this conditioning of abs happens. The appearance of the belt is like the back help prop however it doesn’t bolster the back of an individual. The electrical driving forces structure this kind of belt give incitement to muscular strength nerves that makes the stomach area to respond similarly as it has been exposed to the stomach activities, for example, crunches. The electrical incitement is been given through three gel cushions that are been situated over the focal stomach area and outside angled. Here are not many of the advantages of the belt one should purchase a flexbelt to test it yourself. Most writers benefit from it because most of the benefits associated with it help in creative writing.

Exertion Saving Tool:

One of the advantages of the belt is that it is exceptionally easy to utilize. As it is a belt, so you simply need to flash it around the midsection so as to condition your abs. by wearing this sort of belt, you don’t really need to do any exercises so as to condition the abs. Subsequently, it conditions the abs without the dynamic support of the general population wearing it In this way, the belt is the help for those individuals who have limitations for the serious exercises. With this kind of belt, the general population can condition the abs without working much on it Consequently, it is been considered as the exertion sparing device.

Efficient Tool:

As your abs are conditioned by wearing the belt so you don’t generally need to work. Along these lines, the belt enables you to do various errands while wearing it You can stare at the TV, read, talk and loosen up by wearing it Along these lines, it spares parcel of your time A standout amongst the best things about it is that you can condition your abs regardless of whether you are indoor or at your work. Along these lines, it is painful for the bustling people. Along these lines, it is a brilliant efficient instrument.

Region Saving Tool:

This sort of belt is transportable. As it is basically a belt so you can keep it alongside you wherever you go. You are likewise ready to store it inside your pack, organizer, and others. In this manner, a belt is a space sparing instrument.


The flex belt is been utilizing the best restorative innovation that causes the general population to get conditioned stomach without rehearsing troublesome and difficult activities. This sort of belt is structured by the medicinal organization, so it implies that it has been verified therapeutically not to hurt your body. In particular, this belt is been intended to work for everybody and the innovation that is been utilized gives ensure results to every single client. On the off chance that you need to have well-defined abs or level stomach, at that point you ought to without a doubt attempt this belt.

The wellness advantages of the Flex Belt appear to be two overlays. While you can tone and reinforce your stomach muscles, you can likewise utilize the item to fix your muscles after a strenuous exercise. To work extra pieces of your body, you can buy different extras that work with the Flex Belt.

What individuals appear to like most about the Flex Belt is that it tends to be utilized pretty much anyplace. The belt is explicitly intended to fit watchfully undergarments. The $199 sticker price has accumulated a few protests by customers, however, this is by all accounts minimized by the positive outcomes they got.

How Coffee Boost Your Writing Creativity

Creativity is one of the main elements required to become a good writer. Many people are too much creative by nature and their skill help them producing a good number of creative masterpieces. However, on the other hand, there might be some other factors involved that can affect your creativity.

Work stress or sleeplessness may affect a writer’s mental capabilities resulting in unusual stress. If a writer facing mental stress or other problems like sleeplessness, there might be a chance that he can no make proper use of its creativity.

Coffee is liked by almost every person whether he is a writer or any other professional. Besides its delicious taste, it is also considered as a tasty treat and an energetic snack. However, the research has proven that coffee helps people a lot reducing their stress level. Similarly, it is the key element that helps you boost your mental capabilities and creativity.

How coffee boost your writing creativity?

If you are a writer just like me, you might be curious about how coffee boosts your writing creativity. Well, here you can get the answer to all your questions and queries. Coffee helps the person in the following ways.

  • Increases your energy level
  • Consuming a cup of coffee enhances your short-term memory.
  • Consuming a cup of coffee decreases your mental fatigue.
  • Coffee can increase your physical and cognitive performance.
  • Consuming coffee makes you alert and keeps you awake.
  • Coffee helps you increase your ability to concentrate and focus on a particular point.

Energy level

If are a coffee lover, then you must have noticed the sudden boost in your energy level after consuming a cup of coffee. Right? This is the reason why we love to have a cup of coffee in the morning. It not only refreshes our mind but also gives us a push to start our day energetically.

Mental Fatigue

We all get a lot stressed up after working for 6 to 8 hours. However, the coffee helps us reducing our mental fatigue and keeps us fresh and active throughout the day.

Increases your Performance

As | have mentioned earlier, if you are feeling restless or you are tired of working anymore, you should have a cup of coffee just in order to increase your performance without affecting your creativity.

Focus and concentrate

The focus is very essential for a creative writer. You cannot produce a mind-blowing article without properly focusing on what you are thinking and writing. Coffee helps you totally focus and concentrate on what you are writing.

Can coffee make you fat?

Other than boosting our energy and reducing our stress, can coffee make you fat as well? Medical research has shown that coffee remains within our body for 4 to 6 hours. Therefore, consuming too much of coffee can:

  • Affect hormone Functioning
  • Increase our belly fat
  • Make our blood pressure high
  • Make your cells Insulin resistant and cause diabetes.

What do we do?

To deal with the above situation, I suggest you take a moderate amount of coffee per day along with safe decaffeinated coffee brands and other healthy diets to keep you fit and healthy.

Robert Napier


The Father of Clyde Shipbuilding


Brian D. Osborne

(Printed, 1991, by Dumbarton District Libraries, Dumbarton, Scotland)Robert Napier, the man often described as ‘the father of Clyde shipbuilding”, was born on 21st June 1791, to James and Jean Napier, in their home in Walker’s Close in the High Street of Dumbarton. The boy grew up to become one of the great Victorian industrialists and to do more than any other man of his age to make the Clyde the world’s pre-eminent shipbuilding river. James Napier came from an established Dumbarton family of engineers, blacksmiths and mill-wrights; he and his brother John were in partnership locally, while a third brother, Robert, left to become blacksmith to the Duke of Argyll at Inveraray. James, John and Robert’s mother was Jean Denny, from another Dumbarton family destined to achieve fame as shipbuilders and engineers.

The firm did mill-wright work for the textile industry of the Vale of Leven and sub-contract finishing work on cannon cast at the Clyde Iron Works. The Napiers’ works boasted two steam engines, one a Newcomen type used to power a boring mill. Robert was born into a prosperous family business at a time when the effects of the Industrial Revolution were becoming increasingly evident – as demonstrated by the Newcomen engine. His childhood and apprenticeship almost exactly coincide with the period of the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic wars. Wartime demand for munitions and equipment increased the prosperity of firms such as the Napiers up and down the land.

Robert was sent to the Burgh School where, in addition to the regular curriculum, he had lessons in drawing, a course of study whose long term effects were perhaps seen in his later interest in painting and the fine arts. His father had hoped Robert would enter the ministry of the Church of Scotland but the boy’s interests lay in the family business and the chance of a university education went to his younger brother Peter, who became Minister of Blackfriars Church in Glasgow. At sixteen Robert became apprenticed to his father. At first no formal indenture was signed but near capture in a raid on Dumbarton by a Navy press-gang led, two years after he started work, to a contract being drawn up – an indentured apprentice being exempt from forced conscription.

His five year apprenticeship complete Robert worked on for a time in Dumbarton as a Journeyman with his father but then moved to Edinburgh to gain wider experience. After a difficult start, when, in his own graphic phrase: … he had often to count the lamp-posts for his supper, he secured a position with Robert Stevenson, the founder of another dynasty of famous engineers, the engineer to the Northern Lighthouse Board and famed as the builder of the Bell Rock lighthouse.

In 1815 he went into business on his own account. Borrowing £50 from his father, he rented premises in Greyfriar’s Wynd off the High Street of Glasgow and took on two apprentices. On 21st August he was admitted as a Burgess of Glasgow and four days later entered the body which regulated the city’s engineering trades, The Incorporation of Hammermen – as the Register records: Robert Napier, Smith in Glasgow, a Freeman’s son, made and gave in a Bored Hammer as his Essay, and showed his burgess ticket 

He was not the first Napier with a Glasgow connection as the Register shows, his father was a Freeman and his uncle John had in 1802 set up business near Jamaica Street. Robert soon became active in the affairs of the Hammermen, becoming Collector in 1818 and Deacon in 1820. In 1818 he married his cousin Isabella, John Napier’s daughter and moved to a house in Weaver Street near Glasgow Cathedral. His work in these first years was varied – in the early 1820’s he had a contract to manufacture pipes for a Glasgow waterworks scheme and produced a 12 h.p. steam engine for a Dundee mill.

This last was useful experience for his entry into the field of marine steam engines which came in 1823 – just eleven years after Henry Bell’s “Comet” had sailed down the Clyde to revolutionise maritime transport. Napier always acknowledged Henry Bell’s pioneering efforts; in 1826 he, with the other leading Clyde engineers signed a testimonial to the part Bell had played in the development of steam navigation. In 1851 he erected a statue of the pioneer in Rhu churchyard and in 1872 was a major contributor to the cost of erecting the Bell Monument in West Clyde Street, Helensburgh.

Robert’s local connections undoubtedly helped him to win, from the Dumbarton ship-builder and shipowner James Lang, the engine contract for the “Leven” steamer. This may have been Napier’s first marine engine but it was a good one – so good that it was later fitted to another ship, “Queen of Beauty” and later presented to Dumbarton by Napier’s heirs. This remarkable relic of the first days of steam still survives and has now found an appropriate resting place outside the former Denny Ship Model Experiment Tank. The ” Leven” engine was built at Robert’s new premises at Camlachie Foundry which he had leased in 1821 from his cousin (and brother-in-law) David.

In 1827 a light-hearted event proved to have profound implications for Napier’s career. The Northern Yacht Club at their August Regatta promoted a steamboat race for a twenty guinea cup. The Clyde’s crack boats competed but the two fastest vessels proved to be the Napier engined “Clarence” and “Helensburgh”, a success which greatly enhanced Napier’s reputation. In 1828 Robert established the Vulcan Foundry in Glasgow’s Washington Street and his order book continued to grow. Not the least of Napier’s contributions to Clyde shipbuilding were the many leading shipbuilders and engineers who trained under him or who were, at a formative stage in their careers, employed by him. For example James Thomson was employed as Napier’s leading smith in 1828 and later went on with his brother George (also an ex-Napier employee) to found the Clydebank shipyard of j & G Thomson, which is probably better known by its later name of John Brown & Company, and many other Clydeside yards were run by old Napier men.

By the early 1830’s Napier had become a figure of note in engineering circles and was being consulted on the possibilities of a steamship service from Liverpool to New York. An expanding workload persuaded him to lease, in 1836, David Napier’s Lancefield Works. Robert had previously specialised in building engines for coastal steamers but 1835 saw an important contract from the East India Company to engine their ocean-going paddle sloop “Berenice”. English engineers criticised this major contract going to a provincial builder. When, however, “Berenice” beat her Thames built consort “Atlanta” by 18 days on their maiden passages to India the critics were answered.

Robert’s greatest contribution to international shipping came through his work for Samuel Cunard. Cunard, a Canadian business-man and shipowner, planned a regular transatlantic liner service with an eye to the valuable Government mail contract and came to England early in 1839 to open up negotiations. Despite warnings from London and Liverpool interests, suspicious of the developing Clyde shipbuilding industry, Cunard decided to come to Scotland for his ships. Napier had given much thought to a transatlantic service and so was soon able to produce specifications for the planned 800 ton, 300 h.p. ships. He however soon convinced Cunard that larger and more powerful ships would meet his needs better, offering to cut his profit in order to get Cunard to invest in the bigger vessels.

In fact the three 375 h.p. 960 ton ships contracted for were never built. As a result of changed Government requirements and pressure from Napier, who as always detested the idea of a sub-standard job: … I cannot and will not admit of anything into these engines but what … is sound and good the contract eventually provided for four 420hp 1150 ton ships one of which, the “Caledonia”, was built in Dumbarton at Charles Wood’s premises at the Dockyard.

The extra ship and the increase in size raised Cunard’s costs and there was little evidence of support from English investors. Napier, with a group of Glasgow friends and business partners, was able to float the British and North American Royal Mail Steam Packet Coy. (which later became the Cunard Steam Ship Coy. Ltd.) with Samuel Cunard as the main shareholder, Napier himself investing £6100 of the initial capital of £270,000. Establishing this great shipping company was no easy task – the mail contract might be lucrative but the penalty clauses for delay were severe. It was largely Napier’s reputation and his proven ability to provide reliable and powerful engines which persuaded his fellow Glaswegians to invest in Cunard’s high-risk venture.

As significant as the Cunard connection was Napier’s first Admiralty contract. This came in 1838 and was for engines for the paddle sloops “Vesuvius” and “Stromboli”. Ordering these engines from Clydeside (the ships being built at Sheerness and Portsmouth respectively) was a radical departure for a highly conservative Admiralty. In any case still somewhat suspicious of steam-ships, they preferred dealing with the Thames-side builders and engineers. Despite the success of the Napier-built engines the Admiralty reverted to their usual suppliers and did not place further orders in Glasgow. Some official embarrassment was doubtless caused by a Parliamentary Question, asking for original costs, costs of repairs and time out of commission for steam vessels ordered between 1839 and 1843. The reply proved Napier’s engines to be cheaper and more reliable than those from the English yards. Thereafter Napier was a regular Admiralty contractor!

Up to 1841 Napier had been solely an engine builder, although often acting as a contract manager for his clients; the hull contracts very often going to John Wood at Port Glasgow. Wood was however solely a builder of wooden ships and the demand for iron construction was growing fast. Napier took steps to expand his company to meet these new challenges; his brother James left a partnership with their cousin William to join Robert, who exercised his option to buy Lancefield. Later that year he bought land and established his own iron shipbuilding yard at Govan. In 1842 his company was strengthened by appointing his talented kinsman William Denny (II) as … draftsman, modeller and inspector … and to give instruction to your sons regarding drafting and building of vessels.

The new yard, whose first launch came in June 1843 with the aptly named “Vanguard” for the Dublin & Glasgow Steam Packet Coy., was soon busy with the contract for the Royal Navy’s first iron steamers, the gun-vessels “Jackal”, “Lizard” and “Bloodhound”. Napier’s connection with the Navy was not confined to building its ships. The Navy was adjusting, with difficulties, to the new age of steam but lacked facilities to train its officers in engineering. Napier was asked to allow the attachment of naval officers to his yard to learn something of the vessels they would be serving in.

Napier’s record of achievements is remarkable. In 1849 he built “Leviathan”, the world’s first train ferry, for the North British Railway’s service from Granton to Burntisland. When the beautiful Cunarder “Persia” was launched in 1854 she was the world’s largest ship. The ironclad “Black Prince” launched from Govan in 1861 was, at 9800 tons, the largest ship built on the Clyde to that time.

His fame and reputation was now international. A juror at the Crystal Palace Great Exhibition in 1851 he served in a similar capacity at the Paris Exhibition of 1855 and was appointed a Chevalier of the Legion D’Honneur by Napoleon III. In 1863 he became President of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers.

Although by the late 1860’s he had largely retired he still maintained his overseas links. In 1867 Napoleon III appointed him a Royal Commissioner at the Paris Exhibition and he was presented to the Empress Eugenie. Napier was consulted and respected by Governments all over Europe. He received high honours from France and Denmark but not from his own country. The British Government, which Napier had served so well in the modernisation of the Navy and the training of its officers, never honoured him. Quite why is unclear. Perhaps he had made himself unpopular in his earlier days by his forthright and independent attitude and the efforts of supporters to prove the superiority of his products had doubtless proved irritating to some vested interests.

There is no evidence that Napier was upset by this lack of official recognition. He had many other compensations; a long and happy marriage, the success of his business, the respect of his peers. He was also a keen art collector and his home, West Shandon, housed a remarkable collection of paintings, furniture, porcelain etc. In 1833 he had bought land by the Gareloch to build a cottage but later decided to build an imposing mansion capable of housing this art collection and designed to his tastes by the Glasgow architect John Thomas Rochead. After his death the house sold for £37,500. The art collection, which included old masters of the Dutch, French and Italian schools as well as work by nineteenth century artists like Raeburn and Horatio McCulloch realised £49,000, a figure which needs to be multiplied some 25 to 30 times to translate to present day values. West Shandon was completed by 1852 and many visitors to the area were welcomed there by the tall, distinguished figure of Robert Napier. It was his custom, unusual to the point of eccentricity in the formal Victorian era, to greet all his female visitors with a “Shandon salute” – a kiss on the cheek. This courtesy he even made so bold as to extend to Queen Victoria’s daughter, Princess Louise, who visited him in 1871 after her marriage to the Marquess of Lorne (later the 9th Duke of Argyll). The Princess was, it is reported, amused rather than offended by the old man’s gallantry.

His wife Isabella died in 1875 after a marriage of 57 years. Napier’s grief was profound and he lost interest in his usual pursuits. Shortly afterwards he suffered a serious illness from which he made only a partial recovery and on 23rd June 1876 died at West Shandon aged 85.

He was buried in the family vault in the Parish Churchyard of Dumbarton. The body came by road from Shandon by the Gareloch, where ships at anchor flew their flags at half mast, through Helensburgh, where the streets were lined and the bells of the three town churches tolled for an hour. Fourteen hundred of his firm’s workmen came from Glasgow and Govan by special train to Dalreoch and accompanied the coffin for the last mile to its burying place.

An obituary in the ‘Glasgow Herald” summed up Napier’s character well: The value of a life like that of Robert Napier is its great earnestness and singleness of purpose. He might have become a rich man much sooner than he did if he had scamped his work and had only pecuniary results in view. These he utterly disregarded. He was a poor financier, but he was a noble workman, with a soul above money and meanness in all its forms.

One might dispute whether he was in fact so poor a financier as the writer suggests. His estate which included the shipyard and large property interests in Glasgow and shareholdings in a various other industrial concerns realised well over £400,000 – or perhaps £10 to 12 million in today’s values. That he was a noble workman cannot be denied. Sir James Melvill of the East India Company wrote to Napier in 1856 and told him that he was: … the man who, above all other living men, was given practical effect to the inventions of Watt, and has passed to the world the great blessing of steam navigation. I in my conscience believe that the best vessels afloat are those with which you have had to do.

By his pioneering efforts, his noted insistence on quality and good workmanship, his technical innovation, and his encouragement of many of the leading shipbuilders and engineers of his day and of the next generation, Robert Napier did more than any other to establish the Clyde’s world-wide reputation and may indeed with justice be called “the father of Clyde shipbuilding.”

Copyright ©1991 Brian D. Osborne

[With thanks to Mr Brian D. Osborne for his permission to reproduce this article]


N A T H A N I E L   J O N E S




Jones’s Directory
For the Year 1787


IN introducing the little work of Nathaniel Jones, it may be advisable to give the reader some idea of the condition and dimensions of our good city at the date of its publication.  It may also be worth while to look back through the previous history of Glasgow, in order to note the state of manners, and the rate of progression in numbers, wealth, and civilisation.  While doing so, I shall not attempt to penetrate the obscurity of the early ages, or to inflict on the reader a true and particular account of St. Kentigern’s birth, parentage, and miracles.  Neither shall I open up the dreary roll of our Popish ecclesiastics, from Mungo to Archbishop Beaten, as that would be entirely out of place in a new introduction to an old Directory.  I shall start with the Reformation, by stating that the number of inhabitants in the city of Glasgow at that time did not exceed 4,500, according to several authorities that need not be named.

In those days the majority of the houses were congregated about the bishop’s palace and the upper portion of the High Street; and the common people are described as living in a state of ignorance, poverty, and semi-barbarism.  In troublous times men went about the streets constantly armed; and it was not by any means uncommon for clergymen to appear in the pulpit fully equipped with deadly weapons, in the shape of swords, daggers, and pistols.  Intestine feuds were every-day occurrences; and wrongs were righted on the “good old rule,” by blood-letting and knocking each other on the head, in defiance of law or justice, except the law of self-preservation and the wild justice of revenge.  The reformation of religion unquestionably led to a reformation of public morals, to a certain extent; but, owing to the civil commotions which followed that important era in our history, the progress of well-doing and well-being was necessarily slow.

The circulating medium was scant in the pockets of the people, and the funds of the Corporation were also at a very low ebb.  At a meeting of Council held during the early part of 1609, Provost John Inglis took the opportunity of informing his brethren at the Board that the city was sorely pressed for a debt of a hundred pounds Scots, or £8 6s. 8d.; that the magistrates were in danger of “horning” for the same; and as the Corporation had not the means he had borrowed the amount required from a well-to-do burgess named William Burn.

During the year 1652, and again in 1667, the city was devastated by great fires, which reduced hundreds of houses to ashes in a few hours, and almost ruined the half of the population.  Towards the close of the seventeenth century, and under the provostship of William Napier, merchant, we find the magistrates granting an allowance to the jailer “for keeping warlocks and witches imprisoned in the Tolbootlh, by order of the Lords of Justiciary”- a pretty clear proof that learned judges and local Dogberrys in those days were still subject to old-fashioned prejudices or superstitions.

At the time of the Union a census was taken by order of Robert Rodger, the Provost, and the population was found to be 12,766; while the style of living, as described by Mr. Dugald Bannatyne, was “of a very moderate and frugal cast.” The dwelling-houses of the highest class, as a general rule, contained only one public room, and even that was seldom used except for the entertainment of company.  At other times the family took their meals in a bed-room, without ceremony, or servants dancing about them in attendance.  After dinner – and perhaps a tumbler of rum-punch – the head of the house went back regularly to his place of business, and generally finished up the evening by a sederunt in some favourite tavern.  The gradual increase of wealth, however, by the opening up of the American trade, led to a change in the habits of the better classes.  Larger houses were built, fine furniture was introduced, tea, card, and dancing parties became fashionable; but, nevertheless, the ladies of those days did not think it beneath them to ply the needle, to nurse their own children, to make their own markets, or to superintend the cooking of their husbands’ dinners.

In 1715 the city was much disturbed by the outbreak of the Rebellion; but the soreness on account of the Union was almost worn off, and the citizens did not fail to show their loyalty as well as their liberality.  They raised a regiment of volunteers about 6oo strong, which they drilled and maintained at their own cost; and the city was fortified by a deep and broad trench, as a measure of precaution against the inroads of rebels.

Ten years after this, the splendid mansion of Mr. Campbell, MP for the Glasgow District of Burghs, was attacked and sacked by a mob, in consequence of that gentleman voting for the extension of the malt tax to Scotland.  This fine house was situated on the present site of Glassford Street; and while the mob were busy tearing it to pieces, the Provost, John Stark, and his brother magistrates, were enjoying themselves very comfortably in a public-house.  A detachment of soldiers arrived from Dumbarton Castle at night; and next day, as the rioting still continued, they fired twice upon the crowd, and the result was that nine persons were killed and seventeen wounded.  Intelligence of these troubles was sent to Edinburgh post-haste; when General Wade immediately started for Glasgow, and took possession of the city with a strong force of cavalry, infantry, and artillery.  He was accompanied by Duncan Forbes of Culloden, the Lord Advocate of the time; and, after a searching investigation, nineteen persons were apprehended, bound with ropes, and sent off to Edinburgh to await their trial.  But even this was not considered enough to assert or uphold the majesty of the law.  The whole batch of Glasgow magistrates, from Provost Stark to the Deacon-Convenor, were arrested, thrown into their own Tolbooth, and afterwards sent to Edinburgh as prisoners of state.  After a day’s detention in the capital, they were liberated on bail, and ultimately absolved from the charges of negligence or incapacity; but the city had to pay the piper, in name of damages, to the extent of £9,000.  Shortly after this, Mr. Campbell sold his city mansion; and with the price obtained, and the compensation money, he purchased the entire island of Islay, which his descendants have since permitted to slip through their fingers.

We now come to the year 1736, when old “John M’Ure, alias Campbell, Clerk to the Registration of Seisins, and other Evidents for the District of Glasgow,” published his quaint history of the city.  At this date the population would not exceed 15,000 persons, living in ten streets and seventeen lanes, and on an area of ground scarcely three quarters of a square mile in extent.  It was well provided with bridges, however, there being twenty altogether, and of stone – twelve being within the liberties, and eight without.  Of these twelve, one was over the Clyde at the foot of Stockwell Street, three over St. Enoch’s Burn, and eight over the classic Molendinar.  M’Ure informs his readers, in glowing terms, that the city was surrounded by corn-fields, kitchen and flower gardens, and beautiful orchards, abounding in fruits of all kinds, “which, by reason of the open and large streets, send furth a pleasant and odoriferous smell.” In a final burst of enthusiasm, the old historian says: “It is the most beautiful city in the world for its bigness, and is acknowledged to be so by all foreigners that come thither.”

Among the principal buildings, after the Cathedral and the College, mentioned by M’Ure, the most notable was the town’s “great and magnificent hospital,” situated on the banks of the river a little to the west of Stockwell Street, where the Fish Market is now situated.  It is described as superior to Christ’s Church or the London Charter House; and nothing “of that kind at Rome or Venice comes up to the magnificence of this building.” It was, in short, the admiration of all strangers, and without a parallel in Europe.  The Town-house or Tolbooth is also described as “a noble and magnificent structure-sixty-six foot in length, and from the south to the north twenty-four foot eight inches.”

The reader may be a little surprised to hear that the Tolbooth was also a public-house in the good old times, and that the jailer was in the daily habit of leaning over his half-door, on the outlook for drouthy customers!  We have then a description of the “Bremmylaw harbour and cran,” regarding which the worthy Clerk says.-” There is not such a fresh-water harbour to be seen in any place in Britain: it is strangely fenced with beams of oak, fastened with iron batts within the wall thereof, that the great boards of ice in time of thaw may not offend it; and it is so large that a regiment of horse may be exercised thereupon.”

Several sugar-houses, tan-works, lands, and lodgings are also described, including “the great and stately tenement of land built by the deceased Walter Gibson, merchant, and late Provost of Glasgow.” This tenement occupied the north corner between Prince’s Street and the Saltmarket, and stood “upon eighteen stately pillars or arches, adorned with the several orders of architecture.” Walter Gibson was the son of John Gibson of Overnewtown, and rather a remarkable man in his day.  He commenced business as a maltster – made some money – took to herring-fishing and merchandising; and at length freighted a Dutch ship with 3,600 barrels of herring, which he sent to France, “and got for each barrel of herring a barrel of brandy and a crown.” He was also the first merchant that brought foreign iron to Glasgow, and stood first on the list of the great company carrying on trade “with Virginia and the Carriby-islands.”

At the same period, the number of shopkeepers in the city did not exceed 155, including ” Robert M’Nair and Jean Holmes in Company” – the worthy partners of said firm being “sleeping partners” in another sense, or, in other words, man and wife!  From being small hucksters originally, Robin and Jean became extensive merchants and sugar-boilers, and ultimately owned the largest amount of house property in the city.

In 1745, when the rising in the Highlands took place under Prince Charles Edward, the city of Glasgow raised two battalions of volunteers, each 6oo strong, for the service of the Government.  When the Pretender reached Edinburgh in triumph, he made a demand upon the Glasgow magistrates for all the arms in the city, and £15,000 in hard cash; but, through the exertions of Provost Cochrane, this sum was modified to £5,000, with about £500 worth of goods.  After the romantic march into England, and the disastrous retreat from Derby, Prince Charles, with the main body of his army, made his appearance in the west of Scotland, and entered Glasgow on Christmas-day.  He took up his quarters in the house of Mr. Glassford – the gutted mansion of Mr. Campbell-and remained in the city for ten days.  His Highland followers are described as bare-headed and barefooted fellows, with matted hair, grizzly beards, tanned skins, famished aspect, and peculiarly savage and ferocious looking in their rags.  After exacting heavy contributions in shirts, hose, short coats, shoes, blue bonnets, and provender, the Prince took his departure; and it is said that the city would have been sacked and burned to ashes by the Highlanders, had it not been for the manly resistance of Lochiel.

Up till 1760, the severity of the ancient manners prevailed in full vigour: no lamps were lighted on the Sunday evenings, innocent amusements were denounced, and people were actually prevented from walking on the day of rest.  In order to enforce this regulation, the magistrates employed certain persons named “compurgators,” whose duty was to perambulate the streets and public walks during divine service every Sunday, and to take offenders into custody if they refused to go home when ordered.  A party of these men, on duty at the Green, thought proper to apprehend Mr Peter Blackburn – a prominent citizen, and ancestor of Mr. Blackburn of Killearn; and the result was that Mr. Blackburn prosecuted the magistrates before the Court of Session, and put an end to the “compurgatory” system of Sabbath-keeping.  This Mr. Blackburn was a member of the famous “Hodge-Podge” Club, along with the father of Sir John Moore, and other celebrities, and figured in the rhyme-register of the club (written by Dr. Moore) in the following fashion:-

Rough Peter’s the next who is about to appear,
With his weather-beat phiz, and his heathery hair.
His humour is blunt, and his sayings are snell-
An excellent heart in a villanous shell!”

The Dissenters of those days were equally bigoted in opinion and intolerant in their behaviour, when they had the power.  A mason named Hunter, who was a member of the Antiburgher congregation of North Albion Street, was so far left to himself, or to the wiles of Satan, as to build the Episcopalian Chapel at the Green in the ordinary course of his business; and as the poor man refused to express sincere contrition for his great sin, he was formally excommunicated.

It may easily be supposed, therefore, that “play-acting” in those days would be regarded by the “unco guid” as an utter abomination; and so in truth it really was.  No theatre existed in the city; but strolling companies of players occasionally exhibited their histrionic powers to the lieges in Burrel’s Hall, situated in the upper portion of the High Street.  In the course of 1752, however, a wooden booth was erected within the precincts of the Castle yard, and attached to the ruined walls of the Episcopal Palace; but this unpretending temple of Thespis was afterwards attacked by an excited mob, and almost battered to pieces with stones.  In fact, people going to the play-house at this period had to be guarded home, to protect them from popular violence, if we may trust the evidence of tradition.

In spite of this feeling, five gentlemen – viz., W. M’Dowall of Garthland, W. Bogle of Hamilton Farm, John Baird of Craigton, Robert Bogle of Shettleston, and James Dunlop of Garnkirk – agreed to erect a theatre at their own expense; but not a single feu-owner within the city boundaries would grant a site for such a purpose!  The spirited projectors had therefore to cross St. Enoch’s Burn, and after considerable difficulty they obtained a piece of ground in Alston Street; but the proprietor charged them a double price for it, because it was intended for “the devil’s temple!” In due time the theatre was built, and was ready to be opened in the spring Of 1764, and the celebrated Mrs. Bellamy was announced for the occasion; but, previous to the opening night, the theatre was wilfully set on fire, and the whole scenery, with Mrs. Bellamy’s wardrobe and jewels (valued at £800) were destroyed.

About this time, and for a number of years afterwards, the “tobacco aristocracy” were in the zenith of their fame.  Not a few of these magnates had made immense fortunes by the American trade, more particularly in tobacco, which was imported in large quantities into Glasgow, and then dispensed over the kingdom.  They owned a considerable fleet of ships andwoodcut from the original directory brigantines, about 200 tons burthen each, and something like the annexed figure when in full sail.  In the times preceding the American war of independence, the “tobacco lords” were in the habit of “pacing the plainstones” on the north side of the Trongate, clad in scarlet cloaks, cocked hats, bushy wigs, knee breeches, and silk stockings, They were the “cream of the causeway;” and no tradesman or shopkeeper dared to address them off-hand, or encroach upon the promenade ground, without leave, under pain of the highest displeasure.  Red cloaks with hoods were also quite common with the ladies of those days; while pattens and sedan chairs were used for purposes of locomotion.  Every now and then the public hangman might be seen whipping criminals through the streets at the cart’s tail; while the pillory and the scaffold were very frequently in use.

When Nathaniel Jones published his first Directory, in 1787, the city was still within very narrow limits, and the population could not have exceeded 5o,ooo, being little more than a tithe of its present number.  The sites of Laurieston, Hutchesontown, Tradeston, and Bridgeton, were cornfields or kitchen gardens; hares and partridges were occasionally shot on Blythswood Holm and Garnet Hill; the site of the Edinburgh and Glasgow Railway Station supported a thriving plantation and a rookery; and children waded safely across the Clyde where the harbour now is, and where great iron ships and steamers of more than 2,000 tons burthen are now riding safely at anchor.  In the business parts of the city, shops were lavishly decorated with all sorts of sign-boards, and gilded articles representing the wares to be had within.  Golden fleeces, and fish, and boots, and breeches dangled in middle air; and sometimes the lettering of the signs was a treat to the curious.  In the Gallowgate, for example, there was stuck up the following intimation: “Messages run down this close at 2d a mile!” A little further on might be seen: “New laid eggs every morning, by me, Janet Stobie !” Over an eating-house in a sunk flat, hungry passengers were invited to:

“Stop and read, to prevent mistakes,
Joseph Howel’s beefstakes.
Good meat and drink makes men to grow,
And you will find them here below.”

Among the inns or hotels of the period were the ” Saracen’s Head,” Gallowgate; the ” King’s Arms,” Trongate; the “Bull Inn,” Argyle Street; the ” Crown Inn,” Gallowgate; and the “Leaping Horse,” on the south side of the Trongate.  The “Saracen’s Head,” in particular, was a favourite place of resort for travellers and citizens of distinction.  It was patronized by the Lords of Justiciary on circuit, and by the nobility of several counties, including the sporting Duke of Hamilton.  It was in this famous hostelry that Dr. Samuel Johnson took up his quarters after his tour through the Hebrides; and on his arrival, after seating himself in front of the fire, he put a leg on each side of the grate, and with a mock solemnity said: “Here am I, an Englishman, sitting by a coal fire!” Coaches, flies, diligences, stages, and caravans started from the different hotels for London, Edinburgh, Stirling, Paisley, Greenock, and other towns, at various hours, and made the passageswoodcut of "the fly" from the original directory with commendable regularity, considering the state of the roads.  The Greenock “Fly” (a woodcut of which is here given) took five hours in going – I can scarcely call it running – from Glasgow to Greenock; while the Dumbarton coach made its passage in about four hours.

Among the favourite “houffs” of the fuddling fraternity may be mentioned “Lucky Black’s” tavern, the “Three Tuns,” the “Black Boy,” and the “Boot,” which is simply a corruption of “Bute,” as the tavern was originally called.  Mrs. Black’s tavern was situated down a long narrow close at the head of the Gallowgate, and was a thatched house of two stories.  She drove a “roaring trade,” especially in the winter evenings, and was famous over the city for sheep’s heads, black puddings, and “a skirl in the pan.” The “Black Boy” was also kept by a buxom widow, who ultimately doffed her weeds, and became the landlady of the “Buck’s Head,” where an “ordinary” was kept daily, at the moderate charge of eightpence per head.  The landlord of the “Three Tuns” was ” honest John Greig,” a character in his way; and the same may be said of John Neilson, the Boniface of the Boot.”

In looking over the tiny Directory of Mr Jones, many names will be found just as familiar in the mouths of the citizens now as they were eighty years ago.  It will be seen, at the same time, that immense changes have taken place during that period.  The “merchant princes” have deserted their domiciles in the business parts of the city, and have moved towards the west, or into the country altogether.  The population has increased nearly tenfold; the city itself has invaded the country in all directions, and by thousands of acres at a stretch.

But notwithstanding the increase of population, the multiplication of public works, and the pollution of the river, the rate of mortality has continued to decline.  In 1787, the number of deaths within the city boundaries amounted. to I,759, or one in every 28 of the population; whereas, in 1866, the proportion was exactly one in every 34.  In those days small-pox was one of the most deadly scourges that afflicted humanity; and accordingly we find that out of 1,759 deaths, during the year above named, 383 resulted from small-pox alone, or nearly a fourth part of the aggregate mortality.  In 1866, out of 12,826 deaths, not more than 101 were the effect of small-pox, or one in every 127. The general result shows, that in 1787 one person out of every 130 died from this terrible disease; while in 1866 the proportion of deaths had declined to one in every 4,336.

Eighty years ago the General Post-Office was in a small shop in Gibson’s Wynd, or Prince’s Street, and the business was conducted by one master, two clerks, and two letter-carriers; while the number of the latter at the present time is at least forty times more.  The Custom House was managed by two men, and the Tolbooth by the same number; and, to crown all, the street Directory has swelled from 84 Pages to 85o, and has increased in weight from a little over one ounce to nearly two pounds and a quarter!

It would be quite superfluous to go more particularly into the contents of “Jones’s Directory,” as it is now before the reader, and he may prefer to make his own comparisons.  It may not be out of place, at the same time, to add a few notes regarding some of the names to be found in the pages of Jones, and to mention the simple fact that my information has been chiefly drawn from the works on Glasgow written by’ M’Ure, Cleland, Reid (Senex), Pagan, and Dr. Strang.


Was a native of Stewarton, and commenced business on his own account as a hawker or pedlar.  Then he opened a shop in the High Street of Glasgow, at the yearly rent of five pounds; the half of which he sublet to a watchmaker for fifty shillings!  In these small premises he contrived to carry on a profitable and yearly increasing business in French yarns particularly, until he was appointed agent for the Royal Bank of Scotland, when the watchmaker’s half of the High Street shop was converted into a bank office.  Some time after this, Mr. Dale erected the cotton mills at Lanark, went into turkey-red dyeing, weaving, and other enterprises; in all of which he was remarkably successful.  From less to more he realized a handsome fortune-became a preacher of the gospel in the “Candle Kirk,” father-in-law of Robert Owen, and a Glasgow magistrate. He lived respected by all who knew him, and died universally lamented as an able merchant, a just magistrate, and one of the most benevolent of men.


Was the son of a Perthshire minister, and became pastor of the Wynd Church in 1776.  He was blamed for taking a share in the anti-popish agitation of those days, which resulted in the destruction of a Catholic chapel and a considerable amount of property.  He was a tall, dark-complexioned man, with a commanding appearance and an enormous wig, and he made himself somewhat unpopular among the poorer classes, by looking strictly after parties claiming relief at the Town’s Hospital.  At length the worthy doctor got the cognomen of Buff the Beggars,” and the common cry in the streets was “Porteous and the deil, Buff the beggars weel!”  During the excitement of the French Revolution, Dr Porteous preached a sermon before the Glasgow Volunteers, in which he compared the orgies of the revolutionists to scenes in the bottomless pit, “when Satan gave the signal and all hell rose in a mass!” He was the first minister of St George’s Church, and got for a second wife, the aunt of General Sir John Moore.


Was Town Clerk of Glasgow from 1781 till 1803, and for several years Captain-Commandant of the Light Horse Troop of Volunteers.  When a very young man, Mr Orr fell in love with a beautiful young lady, the intimate acquaintance of his sister, and a very ardent correspondence was the immediate result – the lover concluding, one of his epistles by signing himself  “Your affectionate husband, John Orr.”  Years passed on, and Mr. Orr ceased to talk of marriage.  An action in the Court of Session was raised against him; and, after a protracted litigation, the lady was declared his lawful wife. He steadily refused to live with her, however, or to acknowledge her as his wife.  She entered the Court of Session once more, obtained a divorce, and got married a second time; while Mr Orr remained single throught life, and died in 1803, in the fifty-ninth year of his age.


A gallant old soldier who had seen a good deal of service in foreign parts, and who was much given to fighting his battles over again.  It was his daily habit to “promenade the plainstones” opposite his own house in the Trongate, clad in a suit of snuff-coloured brown, his long, spare limbs incased in blue striped stockings, knee breeches, shoes and buckles.  He sported a long queue, a kold-headed cane, cambric ruffles, powdered hair, and a cocked hat, which he always took off with French politeness when saluting a friend.  He was commonly called “the Beau,” and was esteemed by all who knew him as “a prince of worthy fellows, and a pretty man also.” He lived with two maiden sisters, was a regular member of the Coffee-room, and dearly loved a bowl of good punch, seasoned with limes from his own estate in Trinidad.  At last he sickened and died; and John Wilson in the Noctes sang of him thus:-
“Oh! we ne’er shall see the like of Captain Paton no mo!”


(Or “Bob Dreghorn,” as he was called all over the city) occupied a large house fronting West Clyde Street, and was in the daily practice of walking up Stockwell Street to the Cross.  He was a tall, gaunt figure, dreadfully marked by small-pox; with a large crooked nose, and a pair of eyes that looked in opposite directions.  He had a great antipathy to mischievous boys whom he belaboured with his walking-stick whenever any of them came within reach of the “Dragon’s” arm; and had as great a partiality for servant girls with bare feet!  He was, in short, the embodied ideal of ill-nature and ugliness: mothers used to frighten their children by the mention of his name; and yet he was known to be a kindly-disposed man.  One morning in 1806, he was missed from his usual walking-ground; and on inquiries being made, it was discovered that poor Bob had died by his own hand.  The story ran that his house was haunted; and so strongly did this feeling prevail, that it remained empty and forsaken for many years afterwards.


Was generally regarded as one of the most accomplished scholars that ever occupied the Greek Chair in the Glasgow University. He expounded the ancient classics with an enthusiasm that has never been surpassed; and, moreover, he was an ardent admirer of the drama and of Edmund Kean.  The learned professor was the son of a cooper, and the students on that account dubbed him “Cocky Bung.” While in the theatre one night, he became so absorbed by witnessing Kean’s “Shylock,” that he also commenced to act the part in dumb-show, to the amusement of the audience; and a witty ex-Provost made note of the circumstance in rhyme, as follows:
The very Jew I’ve surely seen
That Shakespeare painted, played by Kean,
While Plaudits loudy rung;
But what was all his acting fine,
To the diverting pantomime
Displayed by Cocky Bung?”


This notability kept a rum-cellar in Wallace’s Closs, Bell’s Wynd, and was known in the city by the sobriquet of “The General,” on account of his tall, erect figure, and “lordly bearing” on the streets.  He was one of the founders of the Camperdown Club, and was never known to change an opinion which he had once fairly adopted.  He detested changes and innovations of all kinds, even in dress, and stuck to knee breeches and white worsted stockings long after the oldest man in the city had discarded them.  In 1803, the “General” was appointed Master of the Glasgow Police, an office which he held for two years.  He was much respected by his fellow citizens, and died in the eighty-seventh year of his age.


A “merchant councillor” in 1787, and Lord Provost of the city in 1793.  During the reign of Mr. Hamilton, a monetary panic overspread, the country: banks failed by the score, firms broke down by the hundred, and the greatest distress prevailed everywhere.  In this emergency Provost Hamilton went to London, and applied for Government aid, to save the manufacturers of Glasgow from ruin, and the application was successful.  He was a thin, spare, skeleton of a man, a real scarecrow provost; and when arrayed in his dark velvet suit, it was said of him that he “looked like Death running away with the mortcloth!” While in London on his benevolent mission, he was held to be a palpable evidence of a famishing city; and having accomplished the object of his journey, the worthy chief magistrate returned and adopted measures for relieving his distressed fellow-citizens.  During Mr  Hamilton’s tenure of office, the Tron Church was rebuilt, and the ancient Cathedral was repaired and re-seated.


A successful West India merchant, a leading partner in the great firm of Stirling, Gordon, and Company, a high Tory, and first president of the celebrated “Pig Club.” – Mr. Gordon was a jolly-looking well-made man, of a lordly bearing; and, like the “General,” he long stuck to knee breeches and worsted stockings. He occupied a large mansion and fine garden on the site of the Prince of Wales buildings in  Buchanan Street, where he surrounded himself with a cricle of the leading Tory gentlemen or the period, and dispensed a princely hospitality.  Mr. Gordon was emphatically a citizen of credit and renown; and, after a long life of mercantile activity, political consistency, and wide-spread benevolence, he died on the 2nd December, 1828, universally lamented in spite of his political opinions.


Was the son of Robert Carrick, minister of Houston, and entered the counting-house of the “Ship Bank” at the age of fifteen, under the auspices of Provost Buchanan of Drumpellier.  Step by step, slowly but surely, Robin Carrick rose to be managing partner of the concern, and one of the most important personages in the city of Glasgow at the time. He was a short, dumpy man, in his latter days with thin grey hair, tied into a pigtail behind and with a keen scrutinizing expression of countenance.  His every-day attire consisted of a long blue coat hanging down to his heels, a striped woollen waistcoat, knee breaches, white ribbed stockings and a pair of capacious shoes.     He sat behind his desk on a three-legged stool, in the “sweating room,” or manager’s sanctum where he received his customers with a bland smile, even when refusing to discount their paper.  On these occasions the invariable saying was, “it’s not convenient;” and once uttered, it was never known to be recalled.  Mr. Carrick was elected Dean of Guild in 1803, and died in 1821.


Was minister of the Chapel of Ease in the latter part of the last century, and was rather a notable sort of character.  He is said to have had a specific grace for every sort of dinner; and when the spread happened to be sumptuous, he usually began with “Bountiful Jehovah!” Mr M’Leod had an arch way of telling a story; and when Dr. Chalmers came to Glasgow, and was in the heyday of his popularity, he remarked: “Weel, I mind mysel’ when I cam first to the Chapel o’ Ease, folk were paying tippence a piece for a seat on the poopit stairs – every dog has its day.”


A leading Glasgow merchant, father of, Kirkman, and grandfather of Mr A. Finlay of Castle Toward, late M.P. for Argyleshire. During the progress of the American war, Mr. James Findlay, in conjunction with ex-Provost Ingram and Mr. Gray of Carntyne resolved to raise a regiment of volunteers in Glasgow for the service of the Government.  With this object in view, the trio met somewhere in the Gallowgate, and proceeded as a recruiting party towards the Cross.  Mr. Gray walked in front, as the sergeant, wielding a formidable sword; Provost Ingram brought up the rear; while Mr. Findlay marched in the centre, playing the bagpipes!  On reaching Peter M’Kinlay’s tavern, the party marched up stairs, and were soon joined by a number of their friends from the Coffee-room, anxious to learn their success in the recruiting line, when Mr. Ingram remarked, “there’s a sergeant and a piper, but I am the regiment!” The recruiting was continued, however; and before many days elapsed, the “regiment” turned out 1000 strong, and afterwards became the 83rd of the line.


A merchant councillor, a popular member of the “Hodge-Podge Club,” a poet of no mean order; younger brother of James Dunlop of Garnkirk, and son of Colin Dunlop of Carmyle.  In 1794, Mr. Dunlop was elected Lord Provost of Glasgow, and afterwards became Collector of Customs at Port-Glasgow, where he died in 1820.  He was the author of the two beautiful songs, ” Here’s to the year that’s awa,” and “Dinna ask me gin I lo’e ye,” besides other pieces of considerable merit.  In 1778, while still a Glasgow town councillor, he took an active part in the promotion of a New Police Bill, and was lampooned by a local satirist in the following style:-
The plan was in the Council moved
By an effected fop,
Who came from off the Turkish Dun,
And so nicknamed Dunlop;
Who struts still in the foremost rank,
Dull councillors among;
Because he apes the turkey’s dance,
And eke the peacock’s song.”


Was minister of the Ramshorn Kirk, or St. David’s, from 1785 till his death, in 1827.  He was an eloquent preacher, a modest, kind-hearted man, and the author of several works, including a “History of France,” of which he was not a little proud.  Being anxious to ascertain what other people thought of his favourite work, the worthy doctor stepped into Stirling’s Library one day, where he was not known, and addressing Mr. Peat, the librarian, said, “Pray, Mr. Peat, is Dr. Rankine’s History of France in?” Mr. Peat turned round on his seat and very curtly replied, “It was never out!” The Doctor took the remark in good part, and went home to his “lodgings” a sadder and a wiser man.


A physician in extensive practice at the head of Stockwell Street, in 1787, and was the grandfather of Charles Wilsone Browne, the husband of the widow Swinfen.  On the 10th January, in the year above named, Dr. Wilsone was knocked down in Argyle Street at night, and robbed by two men named Veitch and M’Aulay, who were tried and sentenced to death for the crime.  At two o’clock on the 30th of May, they were taken out of the Tolbooth at the Cross, and up the High Street to the place of execution in the Castle Yard; but so great was the crush of people on the street, that a halt was made, and refreshments served out to the prisoners at the “Bell of the Brae,” and a whole hour was spent in reaching the Castle Yard.  Both prisoners were duly executed, along with a man named Gentles, who suffered death for robbing a bleachfield.


Was minister of the Barony for sixty-nine years; and for twenty-five years of that long period he preached to his congregation in the crypt of the Cathedral – a spectacle which Scott graphically describes in his “Rob Roy” In 1787, Dr. Burns lodged in Castle-pens Land, on the east side of the High Street, and died in 1839, at the advanced age of ninety-five.


An eminent merchant, and one of the most popular Lord Provosts that Glasgow ever had. At this time he resided in the second floor of an old tenement in Argyle Street; and yet he was rather proud of himself as a provost. On one occasion, while apologizing for some mistake on the part of an official, his lordship said, “even I myself have made a mistake!” a saying that was not soon forgotten. Mr Colquhoun was the originator of the Chamber of Commerce, in 1783; and in 1789 he settled in London, where he became Chief Police Magistrate of the metropolis.


Was appointed Professor of Divinity in the College about 1783; and his lectures were considered remarkable for their learning, liberality, and prolixity.  One of his students, on being asked what he had heard during a certain session, replied, “The illustration of an attribute and a half;” while a second youth remarked that the Doctor had “hung nearly the whole session on one horn of the altar!”  Dr. Findlay had a thin, attenuated figure; but his appearance was venerable and striking, especially on the streets, as he was invariably dressed in clerical attire, surmounted by a cocked hat and a full storied wig.  He died in 1814, at the great age of ninety-three.


An engraver in the second flat of Craig’s Land, at the head of the Old Wynd, was the father of the late Provost Lumsden, and grandfather of our present chief Magistrate.  In 1797, James Lumsden, junior, was erected a knight companion of the “Coul Club,” under the title of Sir Christopher Copperplate.


Was a merchant bailie in 1787, and Lord Provost of the city in 1790.  It was chiefly through the exertions of Mr. M’Dowall that the Royal Infirmary was erected, and the industrial prison, or Bridewell, established in the city.  It was also during his reign that the Trades’ Hall was built, and the Flesher’s Haugh, as well as John King’s Park, was added to the Green.


Were teachers of writing, &c., in Buchanan’s Land, Trongate, and stood in the relationship of uncle and nephew.  John, the uncle, was a bit of a poet, and among other productions wrote a poem entitled “Nonsense,” which was declared by Professor Hamilton to be destitute of a single idea – a feat which gained for the author a leaden crown from the members of the “Accidental Club.” When Mr. Taylor died, and was carried to the High Kirk burying-ground for interment, it was discovered that the undertaker had forgotten to order the preparation of a grave!  In this emergency, the corpse was deposited in she south aisle of the Cathedral, and the funeral party adjourned to a public-house in Kirk Lane, and enjoyed themselves until the gravedigger did his duty. It is not a  little singular that Mr Taylor had strong presentiment that “something would go wrong at his funeral.”

William, the nephew (or the “Cub,” as he was called by his companions), was much given to sarcasm or acidity in his talk – a habit which he carried to great lengths, even with his pupils.  On one occasion, the day before Christmas, a boy went up to Mr. Taylor in school and said, “I suppose, Mr. Taylor, we’ll hae the play the morn to eat our goose?”   The dominie at once replied, Oh ay, Robin; but there’s been sic a slauchter o’ thae animals, I wonder that you hae escaped!”  Mr. Taylor was in the habit of getting “jolly,” and sometimes “glorious,” on the Saturday nights, and occasioially forgot the name of the next day.  One Sunday morning after a “booze,” he awoke in bed, rung the bell violently, and ordered in his shaving water at once, as time was up for school.  The servant girl, rather astonished, said, “Oh!  Mr. TayIor, it’s the Sabbath-day!”  “The Sabbath-day!” exclaimed the ‘Cub,’ “glorious institution the Sabbath!” as he turned round for another snooze.


Teacher in Buchanan’s Court, and afterwards head master of the Grammar School – a man of immense proportions, and known by the nickname of “Gutty Wilson.” He was a member of the corps of volunteers designated the “ancients,” on account of their personal appearance; and on one occasion, while being dressed in line by an Irish drill-sergeant, the latter exclaimed, “Very well in front; but, holy Moses! what a rear!’)


Accountant in the Ship Bank, under the redoubtable Robin Carrick.  Mr. Marshall is described as a cadaverous-looking personage, with a whisky-painted nose. gaunt in figure, and about six feet in height.  He was in the habit of taking burnt cake to kill the smell of the meridian drams; and when he first made this important discovery, he entered the bank in triumph with a bit, of the brown cake in his hand.  Coming behind a bottle companion at the desk (as he believed), Mr. Marshall gave him a hearty slap on the back, and, presenting the piece of cake, exclaimed, “here, my old cock, is one of Robin’s deceivers for you!” The “old cock” was Robin himself! The rest is left to the reader’s imagination.


Better known as “Bauldy Wright,” was an old Highlander, and kept a small shop in the Trongate, where he sold drugs and garden seeds.  He was also the proprietor and sole inventor of “Wright’s Powders,” the virtues of which have been described in the following fashion.-“If they did nae harm, they could do nae guid!”


Another old Highlander and druggist in the Trongate, who also dealt in silver plate, hardware, toys, tea, and quack medicines, including the famous “Balm of Gilead.” Angus kept a shop-man or porter named Murdoch M ‘Donald, who, according to the advertisements had been cured of every disease incident to humanity by a liberal use of his master’s drugs.


Was originally a shoemaker, and ultimately keeper of the Coffee-room at the Cross, and of the “Servants’ Register Office, second stair, left hand, Presbyterian Closs, Saltmarket.” Mr. Jones was also the editor or compiler of the following Directory, and grandfather of Mr. Jones, late librarian of the College.


An ironmonger in the Trongate, and known in the “Beefsteak Club” – of which he was a long time president – as “Tinkler Wilsone.” At a meeting of the club, on a particular occasion, Mr. Wilsone observed a member tossing off a glass of whisky, and following it up immediately by a bumper of brandy.  The witty president at once exclaimed, “Good God, sir! what are you about?  You have disgraced yourself and the club, by putting a fiddling Frenchman above a sturdy Highlander” The copper-nosed delinquent instantly started to his feet, swallowed another jorum of Ferintosh, and laying his hand upon his heart, said, “brand me not with being, a democrat, sir; for now I’ve got the Frenchman between two fires!”


Editor and printer of the Glasgow Advertiser (published every Monday evening), Saltmarket, No. 22.  This journal was transformed into the Glasgow Herald in 1803, under the direction of the celebrated Samuel Hunter. Mr. Mennons, it will be observed, was also the printer of Jones’s Directory.


Loch-head’s Closs, High Street; better known by the appellation of “Bell Geordie,” and one of the old Glasgow celebrities whose names will not be soon forgotten.  Geordie was a stout, burly man, full of caustic humour and fond of whisky – a habit which ultimately cost him his gaudy red coat.  After losing his situation, poor Geordie lost his sight, and was led about the streets by a little girl, begging his bread on the scene of his former glories.  Such is life!